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About The Author: Letom svetom
Bio: Letom svetom za pár euro - cestovanie pre všetkých... Hľadáte lacné letenky, ubytovanie či len parťáka na cesty? U nás vždy môžete niečo nájsť.

Countries=USA; ; Genres=Biography; release Date=1995; rating=9,1 of 10 Stars; Actor=Mel Gibson. HD 1080 Nachdem ihre Großmutter vom Amt in ein Pflegeheim gesteckt wurde, wird die Halbwaise Carrie aus Pittsburgh auf die Ranch ihres Vaters Hank nach Wyoming geschickt. Dem Skatergirl behagt das Landleben zunächst überhaupt nicht, zumal sich Hank auch noch als Erzieher beweisen möchte. Zum Glück gibt es auf der Ranch den wilden Mustang Flicka - und den... Jahr: 2010 Time: 96 min. / 01:36 Language: Deutsch | German Darsteller: Patrick Warburton, Tammin Sursok, Clint Black, Reilly Dolman, Emily Tennant, Ted Whittall, Lorne Cardinal HD 720 Der berühmte russische Balletttänzer Rudolf Nurejew wird in den 1950er Jahren zum Star. Da er das Leben in der Sowjetunion nicht länger ertragen kann, plant er seine Flucht in den Westen. Director Ralph Fiennes captures the raw physicality and brilliance of Rudolf Nureyev, whose escape to the West stunned the world at the height of the Cold War.... Jahr: 2018 Time: 127 min. / 02:07 Darsteller: Oleg Ivenko, Ralph Fiennes, Louis Hofmann, Adèle Exarchopoulos, Sergei Polunin, Olivier Rabourdin, Raphaël Personnaz Die Mama von Spitzen-Cheerleaderin Lina hat reich gefreit, jetzt zieht man vom rustikalen Bandenkiez in East L. A. hinaus in die noble Vorstadt Malibu samt neuer netter Schwester und dazugehöriger High School. Dort hüpfen die braven Cheerleader mehr schlecht als recht neben den Schulsportlern her und müssen sich mal ums mal vom höher begabten... Jahr: 2009 Time: 102 min. / 01:42 Darsteller: Christina Milian, Vanessa Born, Gabrielle Dennis, Christopher Shazar, David Starzyk, Laura Cerón, Brandon Gonzales Im ländlichen Georgia träumt 1977 ein unangepasstes Mädchen vom Leben im Weltraum. Als ein landesweiter Wettbewerb, bei dem man in ein Programm der NASA aufgenommen werden kann, ihr die Chance auf die Erfüllung ihres Traumes bietet, rekrutiert sie kurzerhand eine Gruppe Pfadfinder und knüpft Freundschaften, die ein Leben lang und darüber hinaus... Jahr: 2019 Time: 94 min. / 01:34 Darsteller: Mckenna Grace, Viola Davis, Jim Gaffigan, Allison Janney, Charlie Shotwell, Milan Ray, Johanna Colón "Spieglein, Spieglein an der Wand - wer ist die Schönste im ganzen Land? ", fragt die Königin und tobt, als ihr plötzlich eine Gegnerin in der eigenen Stieftochter erwächst: in Schneewittchen.... Time: 90 min. / 01:30 Darsteller: Tijan Marei, Nadeshda Brennicke, Victor Schefé, Ludwig Simon, Armin Rohde, Carsten Ludwig, Lukás Bech Die Familie Crawley rund um Stammhalter Robert Crawley und Ehefrau Cora Crawley ist nach langer Abwesenheit endlich zurück! Im Jahr 1927 bahnt sich königlicher Besuch an, den sogar Violet Crawley in die Knie zwingen wird. Mary und ihre Schwester Edith haben sich inzwischen an das Leben als Ehefrauen gewöhnt, während Anna und Mr. Bates mittlerweile... Time: 122 min. / 02:02 Darsteller: Hugh Bonneville, Jim Carter, Brendan Coyle, Michelle Dockery, Joanne Froggatt, Harry Hadden-Paton Im Thriller Plume ist es die Tankstellenangestellte Melinda leid, immer im Schatten ihrer allseits beliebten Kollegin Sheila zu stehen. Als der verzweifelte Billy, der dringend Geld braucht, die Tankstelle überfällt, ergreift sie die Gelegenheit deshalb am Schopf.... Time: 88 min. / 01:28 Darsteller: Tilda Cobham-Hervey, Josh Hutcherson, Suki Waterhouse, Harry Shum Jr., Shiloh Fernandez, Keith Leonard, Angel Valle Jr. Der norwegische Film Amundsen erzählt die wahre Geschichte von Roald Amundsen. Der Forscher war der erste Mann, der den Nord- und Südpol erreichte. Auf seinem Weg zum Südpol leistet sich der Entdecker einen erbitterten Wettstreit mit dem britischen Forscher Robert Scott.... Time: 125 min. / 02:05 Darsteller: Pål Sverre Hagen, Adrian Lukis, Mads Sjøgård Pettersen, Øystein Røger, Fridtjov Såheim Die glücklichen Tage ihrer Ehe sind für Karen und John schon lange vorbei. Stattdessen bestimmt mittlerweile Entfremdung und Routine ihren Alltag, was die beiden zur bevorstehenden Scheidung treibt. Als jedoch plötzlich die Zombie-Apokalypse ausbricht und das Noch-Ehepaar in ihrer Wohnung gefangen ist, bleibt ihnen nichts anderes übrig als... Time: 95 min. / 01:35 Darsteller: Zoë Tapper, Ed Speleers, Antonia Campbell-Hughes, Jan Bijvoet, Per Löfberg, Phil Miler Trailer 6 Underground ist ein kommendes Regie-Projekt von Michael Bay für Netflix. Darin geht es um sechs außergewöhnlich begabte Individuen, die ihren Tod vortäuschen und eine Elite-Einheit gründen. Sie werden von dem unbedingten Verlangen angetrieben, die Zukunft zum Positiven zu gestalten. Geleitet wird die Gruppe von einem geheimnisvollen Anführer.... Darsteller: Ryan Reynolds, Adria Arjona, Mélanie Laurent, Ben Hardy, Dave Franco, Sebastian Roché, Sitara Attaie Lucy ist die Tochter eines Mannes, der zum Tode verurteilt wurde. Weil es vom Gerichtsurteil bis zur Hinrichtung aber ein langer Weg ist, kämpft Lucys Familie weiterhin mit allen Mitteln für das Leben ihres Verwandten und auch Lucy selbst macht sich für ihren Vater stark. Dann allerdings begegnet Lucy Mercy, die bei diesem politischen Rechtsstreit... Jahr: 2017 Time: 108 min. / 01:48 Darsteller: Ellen Page, Kate Mara, Amy Seimetz, Charlie Shotwell, Elias Koteas, Tonya Pinkins, Brian Geraghty Im Stockholm des Jahres 1973 überfällt Jan-Erik Olsson eine der größten Banken in Schwedens Hauptstadt und nimmt mehrere Geiseln. Doch als die Gefangenen wieder auf freiem Fuß sind, will keiner von ihnen gegen den eigenen Kidnapper aussagen.... Time: 92 min. / 01:32 Darsteller: Ethan Hawke, Noomi Rapace, Mark Strong, Christopher Heyerdahl, Bea Santos, Mark Rendall, Ian Matthews.

Braveheart cuore impavido trailer. Film je inšpirovaný skutočnou historickou postavou Williama Wallace, ktorý sa v oročí postavil do čela odporu proti anglickému kráľovi Eduardovi I. William sa tajne oženil, aby sa jeho žena vyhla kráľovmu nariadeniu právu prvej noci. Ich svatba však bola odhalená a manželka popravená. Wallace sa postaví do čela odporu proti anglickej vrchnosti a získava spojencov v princeznej Isabelle,. Nakoniec je však Wallace kvôli zrade vlastného vojska zajatý kráľovskými vojskami a je popravený. Dátum: 28. 7. 09 9:42 Autor: spown Dĺžka: 5:00.

Saw Braveheart twice in one: the first time and the last time. and it was more than enough! The good news is that having seen this macho pseudo-spiritual Mel Gibson blood-spectacular, I can now save my money by avoiding his current one about Jesus. Corazón Valiente (Statočné srdce)- 3. časť SK titulky Palec nahoru +2 Palec dolů seriálu Corazón Valiente. Ospravedlňujem sa za niektoré gramatické chyby, ktoré sa vyskytujú vo videu. Všimla som si ich až po nahratí videa a trvalo by mi dlho zase ich opraviť si na to nabudúce dávať väčší pozor. Ďakujem, za pochopenie. Klíčová slova: láska, intrigy, tajomstvá, telenovela, corazon valiente, sk titulky Doporučená videa Webové stránky používají k poskytování služeb, personalizaci reklam a analýze návštěvnosti soubory cookie. Informace, jak tyto stránky používáte, sdílíme se svými partnery pro sociální média, inzerci a analýzy. Pro více informací o nastavení cookies najdete zde.

Nahrát soubory Zpět Menu Stahovat rychle Darovat kredit Můj účet Přihlásit Registrovat Česky Slovensky English Polski Jste starší 18 let? Ano, jsem Ne, nejsem +9 Rozlišení 720x304 Čas 2:50:23 Velikost 2 GB Hodnocení +9, Líbí se mi., Nelíbí se mi. Oblíbené Sdílet Parametry Nahlásit Zobrazit/skrýt více obsahu Stáhnout rychle Stáhnout pomalu Probíhá stahování souboru Zavřít reklamní sdělení reklamní sdělení Rychlé stažení 33 min. FREE stažení 222 min. Cena stažení už za 6, 02 Kč * Komentáře (5) Pro možnost komentovat se musíte nejprve přihlásit. Pokud nemáte jméno a heslo, registrujte se. dado513 před 8 lety Aha sorry, už sa mi to sťahuje, vtedy bolo asi niečo so serverom. domobn kamo ak mi toto pojde stiahnut vybozkavam Ta lebo po slovensky som si to chcel naposledy z jojky aj nahrat ale jojka si urobila vlastny dabing a skoro mi zle prislo galovič je naj v tomto filme milujem tento film s galovičom v sk zneni Film sa nedá stiahnuť mohol by si ho prosím ťa reuploadnuť? avast5 ma to aj SK aj CZ dabing Len doplním ze je to SK DABING, kde Gibsna dabuje Ján Gallovič. Zobrazit/skrýt více obsahu
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Moviestream. Braveheart is without doubt top 10 best epic already done, along with movies like Ben-Hur, Lawrence of Arabia, Gladiator, The Ten Commandments, El Cid, Spartacus, the guy film already shows a beautiful picture that does not have any CGI, Braveheart is perhaps the last movie Epic before the era of CGI, Mel Gibson makes his debut in the direction of a film with big budgets, and he sends very well, so that deservedly won the Oscar for best director, the cast is excellent, Mel Gibson this great as William Wallace, top 5 of their performances easily, he is a character who is playful, serious, dramatic and of course warrior, Patrick McGoohan this impeccable, he is one of the best villains of epic movies, you feel hate the character, Sophie Marceau this beautiful in this film, and this very well in acting, Catherine McCormack, Brendan Gleeson, James Cosmos, Brian Cox, Sean McGinley, David O'Hara and many others complete the cast, the battle scenes are incredible, even with some proceedings errors, the battle of Stirling is very exciting, especially in the moments that Wallace of a scream after the victory, the script has some errors, especially anachronism, like Robert the Bruce never betrayed Wallace, and the Princess of France was 3 years old when Wallace was killed, the soundtrack is the best track I've ever seen in my life, James Horner makes a not most remarkable work, the costume is good, and the end is exciting, the William Wallace Freedom cry is very good, leaves thrilled you even more who was increasingly enjoying the character, rhythm is good, the film has memorable moments, has excellent phrases, the speech of William Wallace at the battle of Stirling is the best speech I've ever seen in my life, Braveheart is one of the best movie ever made, won 5 Oscar deservedly should have won for best soundtrack, this in my top 5, for errors in the script, more has incredible battle, a great cast Mel Gibson in the best stage, a spectacular soundtrack and full of catchy phrases. note 10.

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Braveheart cuore impavido trama. +9 Resolution 720x304 Time 2:50:23 Size 2 GB Comments (5) You have to log in first to leave a comment. If you do not have a login yet, sign up. dado513 8 years ago domobn kamo ak mi toto pojde stiahnut vybozkavam Ta lebo po slovensky som si to chcel naposledy z jojky aj nahrat ale jojka si urobila vlastny dabing a skoro mi zle prislo galovič je naj v tomto filme milujem tento film s galovičom v sk zneni View/hide more content avast5 8 years ago. Volal sa William Wallace a stal sa jedným z najväčších škótskych hrdinov. Jeho príbeh sa začal roku 1280, keď jeho otec a mladší brat padli v boji proti anglickej nadvláde. Vychovával ho strýko Argyle, skúsený bojovník a múdry muž, ktorý Williama učil nielen zaobchádzať s mečom, ale aj cudzie jazyky, písanie a množstvo ďalších užitočných vecí. William však nechce bojovať proti anglickým okupantom, pretože jeho jedinou túžbou je žiť v pokoji s milovanou Murron, chovať ovce a mať kopu detí. Ani jedna z túžob sa mu však... zobraziť viac nesplní. Anglický kráľ Eduarda I. zaviedol do podrobeného Škótska takzvané právo prvej noci pre svojich šľachticov - právo prežiť prvú noc s ktoroukoľvek nevestou. Preto sa William žení s milovanou Murron tajne v lese. Tesne po tajnom svadobnom obrade Murron prepadnú anglickí vojaci, ktorí sa ju pokúsia znásilniť. A keď sa bráni, arogantný anglický šľachtic ju na výstrahu podreže. Williamova odplata je tvrdá a neľútostná. S pomocou priateľov pobije vojakov a vraha svojej ženy tiež podreže. Ešte v ten istý deň sa k Williamovi pridajú ďalší muži a postupne ich prichádza čoraz viac. Celé Škótsko povstane a William sa zmení na nočnú moru Angličanov. « zobraziť menej Pôvodný názov: Braveheart Hrajú: Mel Gibson, James Cosmo, Sean McGinley, Brian Cox, Patrick McGoohan, Peter Hanly, Sophie Marceau, Angus Macfadyen, Catherine McCormack, Réžia: Scenár: Randall Wallace, Krajina pôvodu: USA Rok výroby: 1995 Najbližšie vysielanie filmu Statočné srdce sa v najbližších dňoch nevysiela. Nova Cinema 19. 2/St/ o 23:40 Šílený Max Kultový akčný film s Melom Gibsonom v hlavnej úlohe nás zavedie do apokalyptickej blízkej...

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+1 Kodek: H. 264 / AVC / MPEG-4 AVC / MPEG-4 part 10 Bitrate: 0kbps Počet snímků za vteřinu: 24 Audio Kodek: DCA (DTS Coherent Acoustics) Bitrate: 1500 kbps Počet kanálů: 6 Klíčová slova: statocne srdce braveheart KOMENTÁŘE K SOUBORU 02:57:44 3. 5 GB 02:50:24 1. 3 GB 02:50:24 1. 4 GB 02:57:44 2. 9 GB 02:50:24 1. 3 GB
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Columnist: Ben Domenech
Biography: You can tell a man’s vices by his friends, his virtues by his enemies.

Advocate is a movie starring Hanan Ashrawi, Tareq Barghout, and Avigdor Feldman. A look at the life and work of Jewish-Israeli lawyer Lea Tsemel who has represented political prisoners for nearly 50 years. country - Israel. 134 Vote. . 1Hour, 54M. tomatometers - 7,2 of 10. Level 1 Regardless of a protest, why is there always so much trash and why no one actually tries to take their shit back with them? level 2 Any time you have a ridiculous amount of people in a small area, theres gonna be a lot of trash. level 2 Probably a lack of trash cans or over flowing trash cans that are there. Unfortunately when there isnt proper planning on a site there will be trash left by people who wont just hold on to it until they can find a suitable place to put it in. level 2 I've seen a common theme of "I don't have to be responsible for any mess - even if I'm the cause of it - because someone else is being paid to take care of it. " (It's fairly consistent across locations from McDonalds to concerts to protests. Except, for some reason, this gun rights protest. ) Yeah... and that money would not have to be spent if you took a little responsibility and expended a little effort. level 2 Because in a huge crowd, most people are going to just drop it on the ground because that's what everyone else is doing. Then it's a minority of people that are responsible enough to clean it up. Many people might think of bringing food or protect signs but don't think about what to do with the wrappers when they're done eating or the signs when the protest is over. level 2 Why people set their soda can out in the parking lot beside their car when they're going into a store with recycling cans right outside level 2 In reality it tells you the mob mindset of that particular rally. I was in DC for a rally and everyone picked up their trash, yes there wasn't enough trashcans but the trash was piled as high as it could go and you could watch the people pick up as they walked away. I felt there was still a chance for humanity that day... level 2 I remember photos coming out after the first women's March a few years ago. Those ladies left so much damn trash. level 2 The TEA party rallies were known for leaving venues cleaner than they found them. level 2 That's literally only leftist/progressive protests. Every conservative/right leaning demonstration is marked with the place being cleaner than it was when they started. level 2 and why no one actually tries to take their shit back with them? Accountability of the youth. 2nd amendment people tend to be older and are more accountable. Reddit won't like that answer but it is just true. You are more accountable with age, and no your anecdotal story about someone you knew or 50 people you knew being unaccountable and older is not a valid response. level 2 You should see the mess left behind by Climate Extinction level 2 Actually, there was very little trash considering the number of people. level 1 That's how it should happen, awesome level 2 Honestly a win win strategy. You help the environment and better your public opinion. The moment protest gets disorderly and violent, the opposition propagandize it to make it harder for people to side with them. level 2 Protesters said cleanup would take 20 minutes, awesome.


The advocate.
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Six is sick. the devil made me do it.
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Thanks for sharing this to me Carolyn. Current advocate laws in rwanda. Ashish bagchi advocate. Advocate power. Black power advocate. Advocate jayashankar latest. Advocate healthcare jobs. 17:40 media k liye sahi h.

Ida Wells was an advocate for. ധന്യ ധന്യ ജീവിതം. അദ്ദേഹത്തെ 121 വയസ്സ് ആയുസ്സ് നല്കി ചിരഞ്ജീവിയാക്കണേ എന്ന് ഈശ്വരനോട് പ്രാർത്ഥിക്കുന്നു.

Allama sab u are always the best prankster No one can beat u... Onlgu bunglu 😅

When was Advocate Nasiruddin born. Advocate 6 pack. Poor janet. Your awesome Debbie. Advocate benefits. Lol keanu reeves : Lets make a baybee. Press J to jump to the feed. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts This thread is archived New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast All things pocket knives. An alternative to r/knives. Reddit Inc © 2020. All rights reserved Cookies help us deliver our Services. By using our Services or clicking I agree, you agree to our use of cookies.   Learn More.

I chose to buy this movie and now it is saying: Sorry, there was an error licensing this video instead of playing the video i paid to use. When will the error get fix so I can watch this movie any time I want to watch it. Anna semma ya pandringa neenga comali nishanth illa social life priest. Advocate jobs. What is womens advocate. Advocates act kenya. The Johnny Depp debacle is one of the most deeply troubling and hurtful things I’ve ever encountered in my life. As someone who has endured horrible things at the hands of people who loved way she gaslighted him, the way her anger got elevated, the way she blatantly threatened him with saying that nobody would ever believe him should he come out as a textbook. Those are textbook abuse tactics. I have seen everyone rally around #metoo. Big celebrities such as Kathy Griffin, news networks lambasted Depp. He lost roles, and millions of dollars. Why aren’t amber’s jobs being threatened? Why is the news allowed to sit quiet? Why aren’t people shouting from the rooftops that she is a proponent of domestic violence who should be jailed? It goes deeper to me than man vs woman. To me it means, anyone who has ever come out in support of domestic really cared in the first place. If they cared, they’d pick up on the times where someone was untruthful. If they cared, they’d support male victims of DV the same way. If they cared, they’d be willing to put aside their biases for the good of justice. But they don’t care. They don’t care about domestic abuse victims unless it fits their narrative. It shows me how long we have to go until things are truly equal between men and women. We don’t talk enough about some of the biases we have in our favor as women that lead to terrible people abusing that privilege. Innocent men have died at the hands of false claims, and yet it seems we haven’t gone very far from those ideas at all. If you are an abuse survivor, or have been an ally to people who are abuse survivors, you’d be horrified, no matter who it came from. People like Kathy Griffin and others defending Amber on twitter genuinely turns my stomach. I wouldn’t wish it on a single soul to be abused and not believed. Edit: yes I meant advocate against domestic violence. Slip of the tongue. Y’all don’t gotta tell me about it every 3rd comment hahahaha. Edit 2: here’s a compilation of audio recordings on the matter. amber admits to staging things.

I filed back in mid February, as soon as I could because I knew I needed the return money. (Currently in a bad living situation and baby #2 due october) my mom used to work as a CPA so I usually let her file my taxes for me - she used TurboTax to efile for me this year. She input the numbers from my W2, and completed the return as necessary. It's a very simple return, since I made less than 10k last year because part time then baby leave and I don't have any extra earnings or deductions or anything really aside from the EIC and the credit for bearing a child in that year. I've been waiting for my return ever since. The IRS keeps telling me different things and sending letters, I got a tax advocate to speed up the process like some said online but I feel nothing is working. So, I know they do a review on every child credit now. That's 45 days, on top of the 21 day wait for efile&check. That was the first time I called asking where my return was, they told me it was that so I waited and they released that before the 45 days (April 4) so I was expecting my return anytime - but I didn't get anything, so I called the IRS again to be informed they want an additional 60 days for review. They don't give me a reason. I offered to supply documents or ID or whatever they need if it could help speed up the process and they told me no. I just have to wait til June 4th (60 days).. June 4th came, nothing. I called the IRS yet again, to be informed they see an issue with my return, something about the income being wrong but wouldn't go into detail. He said another 60 day review letter was on the way (which i have read now, and apparently they "dont have information in the computer system" for me so they're waiting for that") I talked with a tax advocate who told me they should've been easily able to identify and tell me the issue, and she's surprised they weren't asking for additional stuff because the issue (according to the advocate) is my employer didn't turn in the proper paperwork (? Wouldn't they be the ones reviewed then? Shouldn't IRS be bugging them for their papers? ) Advocate said to fax over my last paystub of the year to fix it. I don't understand, wasn't all of this info on my W2? Don't they have employers tax ID # I provided in the efile? How could numbers not match if my return matched my W2s? If it'd because my employers #s didn't match with what the IRS and I report, then shouldn't they be punishing the employer? Why are they making me wait for review after review? I don't get this. Can anyone clarify any of this a little more for me? I know it won't change the wait or situation but it would be nice to understand what's happening. I'm just confused.

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Paul saladino made a 2 hour podcast about it and the stuff he revealed in it about the show is just hilarious! But I still think it was kind of worth it, because at least it brings attention to carnivore! XD. Who is advocate general of sindh pakistan. Whoaaaaaa. Stop right there... lol Your first name is not who you are. Thats just your name. Who you are has a way deeper meaning. And the answer will change your life. This video talks about your current state and what youre doing. Nothing related to who you are.

Advocate meaning. An advocate persuades. மகர ராசி அவிட்டம். Advocate riddim mix. A couple of facts about the food program... It does not and is not meant to cover all food purchases made by a family over a month. If a person does not use the benefit as an outsider might think it should be it's not as though beneficiary has stopped eating. Maybe he bought cola at the beginning of the month but he's probably buying rice at the end of the month. All studies have shown that there is no other social program which is more effective. Recipients spend them right away and that money supports store employees and food growers, etc. The effectiveness of any program that puts money into circulation is how much it stays in circulation - how many times it moves from one person to another. A negative aspect for seniors is that each year if their Social Security benefits are increased because the cost of living has increased, their SNAP benefits are decreased by that amount. That's like pretending the cost of food has not gone up. Voodoo economics.
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What is a legal advocate. Great film and great acting. I love this Film. What did Machiavelli advocate. The advocate tasmania. When was Cleveland Advocate created. Syed shah Nawaz Advocate Hyderabad. Rosie is hilarious :D. Advocate 19th-century painting of advocates, by French artist Honoré Daumier Occupation Names Barrister Magistrate Activity sectors Law Description Competencies Good memory, advocacy and interpersonal skills, analytical mind, critical thinking, commercial sense Fields of employment Court Related jobs Barrister, Judge, Jurist An advocate is a professional in the field of law. Different countries' legal systems use the term with somewhat differing meanings. The broad equivalent in many English law –based jurisdictions could be a barrister or a solicitor. However, in Scottish, Manx Law (the law of the Isle of Man), South African, Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Scandinavian, Polish, Israeli, South Asian and South American jurisdictions, "Advocate" indicates a lawyer of superior classification. [1] "Advocate" is in some languages an honorific for lawyers, such as " Adv. Sir Alberico Gentili ". [2] "Advocate" also has the everyday meaning of speaking out to help someone else, such as patient advocacy or the support expected from an elected politician; this article does not cover those senses. United Kingdom and Islands [ edit] England and Wales [ edit] In England and Wales, advocates and proctors practiced civil law in the Admiralty Courts and also, but in England only, in the ecclesiastical courts of the Church of England, in a similar way to barristers, attorneys and solicitors in the common law and equity courts. Advocates, who formed the senior branch of the legal profession in their field, were Doctors of Law of the Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin and Fellows of the Society of Doctors' Commons. Advocates lost their exclusive rights of audience in probate and divorce cases when the Crown took these matters over from the church in 1857, and in Admiralty cases in 1859. The Society of Advocates was never formally wound up, but its building was sold off in 1865 and the last advocate died in 1912. Barristers were admitted to the Court of Arches of the Church of England in 1867. More recently, Solicitor Advocates have also been allowed to play this role. Isle of Man [ edit] Advocates are the only lawyers with rights of audience in the courts of the Isle of Man. An advocate's role is to advise on all matters of law: it may involve representing a client in the civil and criminal courts or advising a client on matters such as matrimonial and family law, trusts and estates, regulatory matters, property transactions and commercial and business law. In court, advocates wear a horsehair wig, stiff collar, bands and a gown in the same way as barristers do elsewhere. To become an advocate, it is normally necessary to hold either a qualifying law degree with no less than lower second class (2:2) honors, or else a degree in another subject with no less than lower second class (2:2) honors complemented by the Common Professional Examination. It is then necessary to obtain a legal professional qualification such as the Bar Professional Training Course or the Legal Practice Course. It is not, however, necessary actually to be admitted as an English barrister or solicitor to train as an advocate. Trainee advocates (as articled clerks are now more usually known) normally undertake a period of two years’ training articled to a senior advocate; in the case of English barristers or solicitors who have been practicing or admitted for three years this training, period is reduced to one year. Foreign lawyers who have been registered as legal practitioners in the Isle of Man for a certain time may also undertake a shorter period of training and supervision. During their training, all trainee advocates are required to pass the Isle of Man bar examinations, which include papers on civil and criminal practice, constitutional and land law, and company law and taxation, as well as accounts. The examinations are rigorous and candidates are limited to three attempts to pass each paper. Senior English barristers are occasionally licensed to appear as advocates in cases expected to be unusually long or complex, without having to pass the bar examination or undertake further training: they are permitted only to act in relation to the matter for which they have been licensed. Similarly, barristers and solicitors employed as public prosecutors may be licensed to appear as advocates without having to pass the bar examination or undertake further training: they are permitted only to act as such only for the duration of that employment. The professional conduct of advocates is regulated by the Isle of Man Law Society, which also maintains a library for its members in Douglas. While advocates in the Isle of Man have not traditionally prefixed their names with 'Advocate' in the Channel Islands manner, some advocates have now started to adopt this practice. Scotland [ edit] Faculty of Advocates [ edit] Part of a series on Scots law Administration Justice and Communities Directorate of the Scottish Government Cabinet Secretary for Justice Judicial Appointments Board Judicial Complaints Reviewer Parole Board for Scotland Legal Aid Board Courts & Tribunals Service College of Justice Office of the Public Guardian Scottish Sentencing Council Law Commission Criminal Cases Review Commission Prison Service Civil courts Court of Session Lord President Lord Justice Clerk Lord of Session Office of the Accountant of Court Acts of Sederunt Sheriff Court Sheriff Appeal Court Sheriff Principal Sheriff Personal Injury Court Sheriff Criminal courts High Court of Justiciary Lord Justice-General Lords Commissioner of Justiciary Acts of Adjournal Sheriff courts Sheriffs Justice of the peace courts Justices of the peace Special courts Court of the Lord Lyon Lord Lyon King of Arms Children's Reporter Administration Children's Hearings Land Court Lands Tribunal Scottish Solicitors' Discipline Tribunal Criminal prosecution Lord Advocate Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service Advocate Depute Procurator fiscal Fiscal fine Precognition Legal profession Judiciary Faculty of Advocates Advocate Law Society Solicitor-Advocate Solicitor Association of Commercial Attorneys Scottish Legal Complaints Commission v t e Advocates are regulated by the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh. The Faculty of Advocates has about 750 members, of whom about 460 are in private practice. About 75 are Queen's Counsel. The Faculty is headed by the Dean of the Faculty who, along with the Vice-Dean, Treasurer, Clerk are elected annually by secret ballot. The Faculty has a service company, Faculty Services Ltd, to which almost all advocates belong, that organised the stables and fee collection. This gives a guarantee to all newly called advocates of a place. Until the end of 2007 there was an agreement with the Law Society of Scotland, which is the professional body for Scottish solicitors, as to the payment of fees, but this has now been replaced by the Law Society. It remains the case that advocates are not permitted to sue for their fees, as they have no contractual relationship with their instructing solicitor or with the client. [3] Their fees are honoraria. Advocates wear wigs, white bow-ties (or falls in the case of senior counsel), straps and gowns as a dress in court. Becoming an advocate [ edit] The process of becoming an advocate is referred to as devilling. All Intrants will be Scottish solicitors, i. e. hold a Bachelor of Laws degree and the Diploma in Legal Practice, and must have completed the traineeships of two years (which in some cases may be reduced to eighteen months) required to qualify as a solicitor; or else will be members of the Bar in another common law jurisdiction. Admission to the Faculty of Advocates [ edit] At the end of the deviling period, a devil's admission to the Faculty is dependent on certification by the principal devil master that the devil is a fit and proper person to be an advocate and that the devil has been involved in a wide range of work in the course of deviling. A devil's competence in a number of aspects of written and oral advocacy is assessed during deviling, and if a devil is assessed as not competent, he or she will not be admitted to the Faculty. Further details of this process can be found in the assessment section. Recent developments [ edit] In recent years, increasing numbers of advocates have come to the Scottish Bar after some time as solicitors, but it is possible to qualify with a law degree, after twenty-one months trainee ship in a solicitor's office and almost a year as a 'devil', or apprentice advocate. There are exceptions for lawyers who are qualified in other European jurisdictions, but all must take the training course as 'devils'. Until 2007, a number of young European lawyers were given a placement with advocates under the European Young Lawyers Scheme organised by the British Council. They are known as 'Eurodevils', in distinction to the Scottish 'devils'. This scheme was withdrawn by the British Council. In January 2009, a replacement scheme began. Lawyers qualified in other European Union states (but not in England and Wales) may have limited rights of audience in the Scottish supreme courts if they appear with an advocate, and a few solicitors known as 'solicitor-advocates' have rights of audience, but for practical purposes advocates have almost exclusive rights of audience in the supreme courts – the High Court of Justiciary (criminal), and the Court of Session (civil). Advocates share right of audience with solicitors in the sheriff courts and justice of the peace courts. It used to be the case that advocates were completely immune from suit etc. while conducting court cases and pre-trial work, as they had to act 'fearlessly and independently'; the rehearing of actions was considered contrary to public interest; and advocates are required to accept clients, they cannot pick and choose. However, the seven-judge English ruling of Arthur J. S. Hall & Co. (a firm) v. Simons 2000 (House of Lords) [4] declared that none of these reasons justified the immunity strongly enough to sustain it. This has been followed in Scotland in Wright v Paton Farrell (2006) obiter [5] insofar as civil cases are concerned. Jersey and the Bailiwick of Guernsey [ edit] The Bailiwick of Jersey and the Bailiwick of Guernsey (Guernsey, together with the two semi-autonomous islands of Alderney and Sark, and together with other islands) are two separate legal jurisdictions, have largely two different sets of laws and have two separate, but similar, legal professions. In both jurisdictions, advocates—properly called Advocates of the Royal Court—are the only lawyers with general rights of audience in their courts. To be eligible to practise as an advocate in Jersey, it is necessary first to have a law degree from a British university or a graduate diploma in law and to have qualified as a recognized legal professional in England and Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland. [6] Thereafter, a candidate must undertake two years of practical experience in a law office dealing with Jersey law, enroll on the Jersey Law Course provided by the Institute of Law, Jersey [7] and pass examinations in six subjects. Alternatively, a person may apply to become a Jersey advocate two years after qualifying as a Jersey solicitor. To become an advocate in Guernsey, one has to possess a valid law degree or diploma, plus a qualification as an English barrister or solicitor, or a French avocat. They must then study for the Guernsey Bar. Three months of study of Norman law at the Université de Caen (University of Caen) is required; this is no longer required for entry into the legal profession in Jersey. Guernsey advocates dress in the same way as barristers, but substitute a black biretta -like toque for a wig, while those in Jersey go bare-headed. Advocates are entitled to prefix their names with 'Advocate'; e. g. Mr Tostevin is called to the Guernsey Bar and is henceforth known as Advocate Tostevin. The head of the profession of advocate in each bailiwick is called the Bâtonnier. Nordic countries [ edit] The Nordic countries have a united legal profession, which means that they do not draw a distinction between lawyers who plead in court and those who do not. To get an official recognition with an advocates title, the candidate must have a legal degree, that is, completed ca. 5–6 years of legal studies from an accredited university in his or own country, and in addition have worked for some time (around 2 – 5 years) under the auspices of a qualified advocate and have some experience from court. When qualified, the candidate may obtain a license as an advocate, the equivalent of being called to the bar. In all the Scandinavian languages the title is advokat; in Finland advokat is the Swedish title for such a qualified lawyer, with the equivalent title in Finnish being asianajaja. However, one does not necessarily have to be an advocate to represent a party in the Nordic countries legally. In Norway a person with an appropriate law degree for example can practice law as a registered legal advisor ( rettshjelper) instead, which gives many of the same rights as an advocate's title. Both in Sweden and Norway any adult, in theory, can represent a party in court without any prior approval, training, licence or advocate title. In practice it's unusual, and in Norway it's subject to the approval of the court, which is unlikely to give it except in very simple cases. In English, the Scandinavian title of advokat is interchangeably also translated as barrister, lawyer or attorney-at-law. South Africa [ edit] In South Africa, [8] there are two main branches of legal practitioner: attorneys, who do legal work of all kinds, and advocates, who are specialist litigators; see Attorneys in South Africa. In general, advocates (also called 'counsel') are 'briefed' by attorneys when a specialist skill in court-based litigation, or in research into the law is required; advocates have no direct contact with clients and are said to be in a 'referral' profession. The key formal distinction, however, is the different rights with regard to the courts in which they may appear. Advocates have the right to appear in any court, while attorneys have the right to appear only in the lower courts. (And, under certain conditions, can acquire the right of appearance in the superior courts, by applying to the registrar of the provincial division of the relevant High Court. ) [9] A further distinction is that while attorneys practice in partnership, advocates are individual practitioners and never form partnerships; practice in "Chambers" and / or "Groups" is standard. [10] The requirements to enter private practice as advocates (Junior Counsel) are to hold the LL. B. degree, and to become a member of a Bar Association by undergoing a period of training ( pupilage) for one year with a practicing Advocate, and to sit an admission examination. See Legal education in South Africa. On the recommendation of the Bar Councils, an advocate "of proven experience and skill" with at least ten years experience, may be appointed by the President of South Africa as a Senior Counsel (SC; also referred to as a "silk"). When a junior advocate is viewed in the eyes of any particular Senior Counsel (Silk) as having commended him or herself in the profession so as to warrant recognition for excellence, he or she is commonly rewarded with a traditional gift of a red brief bag. State advocates act as a public prosecutor in High Court matters, typically in cases requiring preparation and research. They are appointed by the National Prosecuting Authority and are attached to the Office of the National Director of Public Prosecutions. [11] Pakistan [ edit] Different levels of Advocate exist in Pakistan: Advocate [ edit] The first level is the Advocate, who is eligible to practice in the district courts or lower courts in respective province. One can qualify as an Advocate after completion of a law degree (LL. B of three years), six months pupillage under a senior Advocate in his/her chambers and thereafter to go for Bar admission test, the Bar Council of the relevant province examine him/her that he is fit or not to become as an Advocate and is not convicted. After passing the multiple choice question examination and interview conducted by provincial Bar Council, the Bar Council will issue him/her the license for appearing before the Courts. Advocate High Court [ edit] After completion of two years practice Advocate then can apply for Advocate High court practicing certificate/ license and after an interview they can apply for Advocate High Court license. Advocate Supreme Court [ edit] Advocate Supreme Court is the third level. After successful completion of ten years of practice in the High Courts by the applicant, the panel of members of Pakistan Bar Council and one judge of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, review the application. (Before 1985 the requirement was a successful completion of five years practice in the High Courts of Pakistan. ) Over fifty percent of applications are accepted, after successful completion of the requirement. An unsuccessful application in one year does not bar the candidate from re-applying in the next judicial year. The highest level is the Senior Advocate Supreme Court. It is Pakistan's title equivalent to Queen's Counsel in the United Kingdom. After at least fifteen years of practice, by invitation or by an application to a panel of Supreme Court Judges headed by the Chief Justice of Pakistan, one can become Senior Advocate of Supreme Court of Pakistan. Very few applications are accepted and even fewer invitations are made. Attorneys General are usually invited by the Supreme Court on the appointment, to the office. So are some notable High Court judges who upon retirement choose to practice before the Supreme Court, where they are still eligible to do so. India [ edit] Advocate's office in Rajasthan In India, the law relating to the Advocates is the Advocates Act, 1961 introduced and thought up by Ashok Kumar Sen, the then law minister of India, which is a law passed by the Parliament and is administered and enforced by the Bar Council of India. Under the Act, the Bar Council of India is the supreme regulatory body to regulate the legal profession in India and also to ensure the compliance of the laws and maintenance of professional standards by the legal profession in the country. Each State has a Bar Council of its own whose function is to enroll the Advocates willing to practice predominately within the territorial confines of that State and to perform the functions of the Bar Council of India within the territory assigned to them. Therefore, each law degree holder must be enrolled with a (single) State Bar Council to practice in India. However, enrollment with any State Bar Council does not restrict the Advocate from appearing before any court in India, even though it is beyond the territorial jurisdiction of the State Bar Council which he is enrolled in. The advantage of having the State Bar Councils is that the workload of the Bar Council of India can be divided into these various State Bar Councils and also that matters can be dealt with locally and in an expedited manner. However, for all practical and legal purposes, the Bar Council of India retains with it, the final power to take decisions in any and all matters related to the legal profession on the whole or with respect to any Advocate individually, as so provided under the Advocates Act, 1961. The process of being entitled to practice in India is twofold. First, the applicant must be a holder of a law degree from a recognized institution in India (or from one of the four recognized Universities in the United Kingdom) and second, must pass the enrollment qualifications of the Bar Council of the state where he/she seeks to be enrolled. For this purpose, the Bar Council of India has an internal Committee whose function is to supervise and examine the various institutions conferring law degrees and to grant recognition to these institutions once they meet the required standards. In this manner, the Bar Council of India also ensures the standard of education required for practicing in India is met with. As regards the qualification for enrollment with the State Bar Council, while the actual formalities may vary from one State to another, yet predominately they ensure that the application has not been a bankrupt /criminal and is generally fit to practice before courts of India. Enrollment with a Bar Council also means that the law degree holder is recognized as an Advocate and is required to maintain a standard of conduct and professional demeanor at all times, both on and off the profession. The Bar Council of India also prescribes "Rules of Conduct" to be observed by the Advocates in the courts, while interacting with clients and even otherwise. All Advocates in India are at the same level and are recognized as such. Any distinction, if any, is made only on the basis of seniority, which implies the length of practice at the Bar. As a recognition of law practice and specialization in an area of law, there is a concept of conferral of Senior Advocate status. An Advocate may be recognized by the Judges of the High Court (in case of an Advocate practicing before that High Court) or by the Supreme Court (in case of the Advocate practicing before the Supreme Court). While the conferral of Senior Advocate status not only implies distinction and fame of the Advocate, it also requires the Senior Advocate to follow higher standards of conduct and some distinct rules. Also, a Senior Advocate is not allowed to interact directly with the clients. He can only take briefs from other Advocates and argue on the basis of the details given by them. From the year 2010 onward a mandatory rule is made for lawyers passing out from the year 2009-10 to sit for an evaluation test named AIBE (All India Bar Exam) for one to qualify as an advocate and practice in the courts. However, to practice law before the Supreme Court of India, Advocates must first appear for and qualify in the Supreme Court Advocate on Record Examination conducted by the Supreme Court. Further, under the Constitutional structure, there is a provision for the elevation of Advocates as judges of High Courts and Supreme Court. The only requirement is the Advocate must have ten years standing before the High Court(/s) or before the Supreme Court to be eligible for such. (Article 217 and 124 of the Constitution of India for High Courts and Supreme Court respectively) Bangladesh [ edit] In Bangladesh, after passing the Higher Secondary School Certificate, one can apply for admission for studying Law in Universities. There are several public and private universities which provide Bachelor of Laws and Master of Laws degree in Bangladesh. Generally the LL. course is equivalent to four year bachelor's degree. Graduate lawyers have to seat for and pass the Bar Council Exam to become advocates. [12] Advocate of Supreme Court [ edit] By passing the Bangladesh Bar Council Exam, advocates are eligible to practice in the Supreme Court of Bangladesh and other courts. A license is obtained after successful completion of two year's practice in the lower courts by applicant, which is reviewed by a body of the relevant provincial Bar Council. Most applications after successful completion of the requirement, are accepted. Sri Lanka [ edit] In Sri Lanka (formally Ceylon) till 1973 Advocate was a practitioner in a court of law who is legally qualified to prosecute and defend actions in such court on the retainer of clients. Advocates had to pass the HSC exam and enter the Sri Lanka Law College and follow the relevant course. Following changers in 1973 the title was replaced with Attorney at law. The current equivalent to an advocate is a counsel who is a trial lawyer distinguished from an instructing attorney. Brazil [ edit] In Brazil, the bar examination occurs nationally in March, August, and December. These examinations are unified and organized by the Order of Attorneys of Brazil. After 5 years in law school, Brazilian law students take the Bar exam that consists of 2 phases: the multiple choice test and written test, without further requirements. The Constitution of Brazil applies restrictions on professional practice of law embodied in the fulfillment of the requirements and qualifications, which may include, in addition to graduation, formal submission of the applicant in the proficiency tests. The Order exam is tied to Law No. 8609 of 4/7/1994: " Article 8: For registration as an attorney is needed: IV - To pass the Examination of the Order;" Within its powers expressly granted by the Constitution, the ordinary legislator demands that whoever wishes to pursue the legal profession possess the degree of Bachelor of Law and approval of Examination of Order, whose preparation and implementation is done by their own class. The Constitution itself provides for the restriction, and the Statute of Law requires the examination. The bar exam in Brazil approves very few candidates and is considered a hard exam. For instance, in February 2014, the Bar association made a release stating that only 19. 64% of candidates had been approved in the last exam and, therefore, were able to register as lawyers. [13] Netherlands [ edit] In Dutch law, the law relating to the Advocates is the Advocates Act. Under the Act, the Dutch bar association (Orde van Advocaten) regulates the professional conduct and the professional education of the advocates. A Dutch advocate has to complete Dutch bar education and fulfill certain requirements (which may vary among the various judicial regions within the Netherlands) under the supervision of a senior advocate for a period of at least three years, called the 'advocate-stage'. After completing the bar education exams, the junior advocate is admitted unconditionally to the Dutch bar. See also [ edit] Advocatus Barrister Lawspeaker Jurist Ombudsman Advocate General Judge Advocate General Roles and responsibilities of an Advocate in the Court of Law References [ edit] ^ An advocate would be the most essential part of the European jurisdictions (law n. 133), Jus Navigandi Archived February 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, FERREIRA, Éder Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, pesquisados em 7 de abril de 2008 ^ "Si agli "abogados" in Italia ma in Spagna ormai è più difficile ottenere il titolo". Archived from the original on 2015-05-12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-10-10. Retrieved 2008-01-28. CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link) ^ Law Lords Department (2000-07-20). "House of Lords - Arthur J. S Hall and Co. v. Simons (A. P. ) Barratt v. Ansell and Others (Trading As Woolf Seddon (A Firm) Harris v. Scholfield Roberts and Hill (Conjoined Appeals)". Archived from the original on 2012-08-29. Retrieved 2013-06-11. ^ "TREVOR RUSH McCAFFERTY WRIGHT v. PATON FARRELL+ROBERT PATON+PETER FARRELL, 10 February 2006, Lord President". Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 2013-06-11. ^ Advocates and Solicitors (Jersey) Law 1997 ^ "Home | Institute of Law". Archived from the original on 2013-08-11. Retrieved 2013-06-11. ^ "". 1998-11-16. Archived from the original on 2013-06-03. Retrieved 2013-06-11. ^ "LAW PROFESSIONALS" Archived 2013-07-28 at the Wayback Machine, Department of Labour South Africa ^ "". 2001-04-08. Archived from the original on 2013-05-13. Retrieved 2013-06-11. ^ "Justice/Resources/Publications/Careers in the Justice System". Archived from the original on 2014-12-30. ^ "Students lock Bar Council".. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2015. ^ "OAB releases the results of the XI Unified Bar Exam (in Portuguese)". Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil. OAB. 2014-02-03. Archived from the original on 2014-04-09. Retrieved 2015-01-12. External links [ edit] Look up advocate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Advocates. The Faculty of Advocates official website Association of licensed attorneys in Finland.


What did Voltaire advocate.

When was Doctor's Advocate created. When was The Advocate created. Advocate batavia. And I feel like there is still a long ways to go in terms of social progression that a lot of people are in denial about. Racism, homophobia, sexism, transphobia all exist still, even the people who are vocally opposed to those things Personally, I don't think these things will ever truely go away or be fully removed from peoples minds. At least not anytime soon. At the end of the day, the tribal mindset is still strong within people. Someone or something is different then you are, so it MUST be bad! Stuff like that. We have come a long way, but I can't see the true enlightenment that people seem to be pushing for arriving until at least 200+ years or more into the future. Even in places which do have melting pot cultures where everything blends together and takes ideas from each other freely, if a new unknown gets added people will get worried. Take for instance where I live, over the last 5ish years the culture of this place has changed. We have gone from a population of like 90% Scotish/Irish/British/French style culture and 10% everything else (Which was the case for 300+ years) to a population where that same demigraphic is starting to shrink, as does the culture. Personally, I embrace all the new cultures and ideas popping up since it helps pave the way for future understanding and acceptance. Most others don't view it that way, they are fearful that everything they personally hold near and dear will be ripped from them. That they will no longer be able to openly practice their culture, and will one day need to practice someone elses (Which is a silly fear, but still a fear they have). That everywhere they look will no longer be the familiar sights and sounds which have brought them comfort over their whole lives, but will be those things which are unknown to them. As well as the fear that the already limited budget will be cut up even smaller to help support and establish the new cultures and ideas which have been coming over in recent years (Most famously for Canada the fact that there was a heavy rumor going around (not disputed by the government either) that the refuges coming over were being given more money to live off of then people native to the country to begin with that also had to live on the system. I think the rumor was that they were being given 2x as much as someone already on the system. ) At the end of the day, its all fear of the unknown and fear of how that unknown is going to change to you. Even once people become more educated, there will always be those who slip through the cracks or who do independent research and find half truths or incorrect information online. For those, all we can really do is help explain stuff to those willing to listen and learn.

Just because someone eats meat doesn't mean they can't or don't care about animals. Take hunters for example. They shoot an animal, and use as much of the carcass as possible. Feeding their family for months, and possibly using the pelt/antlers. One could also eat meat and still be an advocate for animal rights by getting meat from organic, responsible farms, instead of from the supermarket, where the meat comes from terrible factory farms where animals are raised in disgusting conditions with limited space. Killing and eating animals is a part of nature. Eating meat doesn't make you evil. Advocate rokonuzzaman gojol. Kollam kailasa advocate contact number. Thank you, Shariff gaaru... Advocate logo.

Who was black power advocate. Can advocate be a witness. Trump's inner circle. 6:52 When you perceive choice, you perceive motivation. Hi! So me and my boyfriend have just got to Powerful Awakening - this is our second time getting to this point after a previous playthrough in the classic edition where we got roughly this far but stopped, so we sort of have an idea on who to learn source from with vague memories since it was a while ago but... Well, I know if you've already maxed out your source points, you will receive alternate rewards instead of a Source point, most notably Jahan's "Summon Inner Demon" skillbook (Definitely going for that book! ) But finding clear and concise information on this part of the game seems impossible at worst and tedious at best for some reason, the wiki isn't the most reliable and I can't find the information anywhere else so coming here to ask: What are *all* the ways of gaining more source points? Each and every one, I wanna know them all please. =D I've seen people saying there's 8 ways but I'm unsure if that's true. (I count so far: Mordus, Jahan, Advocate, Hannag, Almira, Ryker and Saheila. Is the holy man Nicholas mentions an option or no? I've seen some people saying it's Alexander which sounds confusing to me... And I've seen one person say about some Lich in Mordus' basement who can teach you. So I guess so far that's a confirmed 7 at least but what about those last two? ) And without spoilers, who are the most moral options and who are the most reprehensible options? And on top of that, if you've already maxed out your source points, what do each of these people give you instead? So far I know as previously mentioned Jahan gives the Summon Inner Demon book and I believe Saheila gives the Far Sight book? What about the others? Thanks for any and all information!

Can an advocate advertise his self. She did such a good job keeping a straight face. Advocate spot on. Advocate definition. I have a query, I'm planning a pure elemental (converted from physical) build with the new minion gloves. Simulating as much of 3. 8 as I possibly can in Path of Building, I have their physical mortar dealing 145k dps and their physical beam dealing 119k dps. This is based on level 86 spectres with Shaper as the target. As I've never used these spectres before I can't possibly judge how they'd perform. To anyone who's familiar with them, how would my clearspeed be with them in high tier maps? Say, compared to Solar Guards etc. in standard summoner builds? Edit: that's with conc effect, no clue how their aoe is with that reduced.

Renter advocate green bay wi. /u/jayboblotus reports in the thread down below: IMPORTANT UPDATE!! I just spoke to the Mayor of Geraldine, Chuck Ables. Super nice guy btw he answered all my questions calmly and listened to me patiently while I was talking and seem to be a bit embarrassed by the whole ordeal. I asked about the officer in question and he said he’s off( seems like he might be in paid leave already) I asked to speak to the police chief and the mayor said he’s in meetings out of town. Overall the Mayor of Geraldine was not rude at all. He was a true professional and hope he makes the right decision on this rogue assistant police chief and his terroristic comments.

அடேய் நீங்களும் tnpsc exam எழுதின பயலுக தானே அந்த வலி உங்களுக்கு தெறிச்ச நல்லாத்தானே இந்த வீடியோ போட்டு இருக்கிக. Man, I just love the whole gallows humour in this movie. Ohhh... I have so many names... Nais hhhhh. Who wrote The Devil's Advocate. Did Benjamin Franklin advocate aboloshing slavery. Advocaten antwerpen. Mje Alama furaan se piyar hai... I am from quetta.



 

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Adventure; ; Jillian Jacobs; Star: Michael Peña.
This is such a fantastic trailer.
Was or was that not the Clown from house of a 1000 corpses.
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Windows official fantasy island game. Windows official fantasy island location. Why is the Rock in every other movie wtf. First time I went on this ride was a week ago and I was on it with my friends brother and his friend and I was screaming the whole way through but I went on it another 5 times in same day. I love it and would 100% recommend going on it if youre there. Windows official fantasy island ny. Windows official fantasy island 2017. Windows official fantasy island walkthrough.

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  1. Nicolas Pesce
  2. country: Canada
  3. audience score: 3339 Vote
  4. Average rating: 4,9 of 10
  5. 2020

 

The Grudge: KlÄ…t.a.l. The grudge klątwa zwiastun. The grudge klątwa kino. The grudge klatwa recenzja. The grudge klątwa pl. The grudge klątwa recenzja. The grudge 3a kl c4 85twa new. The grudge klątwa 2020 opinie. The grudge klątwa 2019. I remember seeing the 2004 American version of this story in theaters when I was a kid with my dad, who is an avid horror fan. Believe me, that was indeed a rarity for me as I hardly see horror films, because as I firmly believe in my adulthood, they're mostly the same old thing. I remember the creepy girl with the dark hair. I recall Sarah Michelle Gellar starring in it. And. that's about it.
And that's exactly the same fate I feel that this "Grudge" is going to fall under. I remember the little girl with dark hair again, which is sort of a clone of the girl you saw in "The Ring" wasn't it? I recall that Jacki Weaver of all people accepted a supporting role in this for some reason. And. history is surely going to repeat itself, I'm sure.
The problem with this new "Grudge" that Sony Pictures is bestowing upon us is not in terms of the actors not trying or giving it their all. In fact, the cast does the best it can to make what weak material they all have to work with lift off of the ground. The real symptom infecting this poor creature is a rather common complaint you'll come across with many horror films, especially those released within this specific timeframe.
This symptom I'm referring to is its severe lack of spontaneity. And this abundant absence of unpredictability is a major crime, especially for a horror film. You would think that a film within this genre would take better advantage of their natural spontaneity to get more scares from the audience and further catch them off guard. And yet here we are still successfully picking up the inevitable jump scares a good many seconds before they even unfold.
This is another modern-day example that proves once again that if you're going to do an effective horror film, then maybe it should be labeled under a different film genre to get the desired effect. Maybe that's why horror flicks usually don't work for me. Whenever I go into a horror flick, I already know what is going to happen because it's spoiled by the simple labeling of it being a horror film.
Now this wouldn't be as big a problem if the film had anything original or distinctive within this story. In recent years, we've seen the emergence of horror films such as "Get Out" and "Us" that still tell interesting stories in between all of the scares that are bound to pop up. What I mean by this is that you can make a horror film work even without the trademark scares you want for a film from this genre.
In the case of "The Grudge" however, there isn't a single unique bone or organ in this highly conventional and lifeless body. I could try and put in effort to describe the basic plot behind this story. Unfortunately, no matter what I do to make it sound like its own unique thing, I promise you that everyone reading this will think it's the same horror film being regurgitated a billion times. Don't believe me? Here's my own brief summary in two sentences.
An unusual disease that affects an American woman in Japan is carried over back home to wreak havoc on multiple lives. This includes our main lead, played by Andrea Riseborough, who is a police officer trying to uncover the mysteries surrounding these tragedies and unsurprisingly put a stop to it. Yes, you can swipe out the names of the characters or the locations for that matter, and it still wouldn't change a thing.
You see, it's not that this new "Grudge" is incompetently put together or sabotaged by people that didn't want to be there in the first place. This is clearly not what's taking place here. What is evident here was that there wasn't much material here to begin with. At best, it is heavily uninspired and leaning heavily on what has been done effectively before in far superior works.
At its worst is a dull bore fest that doesn't justify its existence in any way, shape or form with what it brings to the table. And you know, the standards for horror films have really been raised as of late by the likes of "Get Out. Us. Hereditary" and "A Quiet Place. Films within this genre are getting better at becoming their own unique thing to better please folks who usually aren't into this specific film genre.
And a film like this new version of "The Grudge" may have been somewhat passable as an average time waster about 10 to 15 years ago. Now however, this kind of structured and manufactured run-of-the-mill horror flick with its dependence on the bare minimum jump scares is just not enough anymore. For a film ironically titled "The Grudge" this outdated horror flick isn't even worth getting that steamed over.

The grudge klątwa opinie. A house is cursed by a vengeful ghost that dooms those who enter it with a violent death. Genre: Mystery, Horror Actor: Lin Shaye, Andrea Riseborough, Demian Bichir, Jacki Weaver, John Cho Director: Unknown Country: USA Duration: 1h 33m Release: 2020 Quality: HD.

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The grudge klątwa. The grudge klątwa cały film. Bad reviews and i do not way but In my opinion i can say that it worth to watch
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The grudge 3a kl c4 85twa review. Watch The Grudge Online For Free 5376 views A house is cursed by a vengeful ghost that dooms those who enter it with a violent death. Genre: Featured Movies / Mystery / Horror Country: Canada, USA Director: Nicolas Pesce Actors: Betty Gilpin, Andrea Riseborough, William Sadler, Lin Shaye Duration: 93 minutes Quality: HDCAM Release: 2020 Language: English The Grudge, watch The Grudge online, The Grudge for free solarmovie, hd The Grudge, movie full hd movie download, The Grudge for free 123movieshub, full movie The Grudge, The Grudge gomovies online, watch in hd The Grudge.

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Despite it being rated R unlike the PG-13 rating of the originals based on the Japanese hit horror movies, this retelling of a classic is confusing and has way too many jump scares. Rent it if u dare and stick with the classics. The grudge klątwa zwiastun 2004. The grudge klątwa 2. The grudge klątwa trailer. The grudge - klątwa (2004.

 


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The Grudge: Klątwa Rated 4.5 / 5 based on 580 reviews.

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  1. Cast: Ryan Guzman, Edward James Olmos
  2. resume: On the morning of September 11, 2001, Fernando and his family in Mexico watch the news in horror as the Twin Towers collapse. His father, Balthazar, is an undocumented busboy on the top floor in the Windows on the World restaurant. Three weeks pass, and there is no word from Balthazar. No telephone calls, money orders, or hope that he is alive. As the family grieves, feeling the emotional and financial toll of their absent patriarch, Fernando's distraught mother swears she sees her husband on news footage - escaping from the building ALIVE. Heroic Fernando decides to take the epic journey from Mexico to New York City to find his father and save his family. Along the way, he finds love and befriends an eclectic group of international characters that help him restore his faith in humanity, as Fernando discovers the hard truths about his father, the melting pot of America, and the immigrant experience
  3. director: Michael D. Olmos
  4. USA
  5. Zack Anderson
  6. 1 h, 47 Minute

 

Sounds great from Chronicle review. Should be seen. Windows on the. Great work and fantastic guest, I will look up the info mentioned by Clive 👍. Windows on the world extinction rebellion. Running from that cloud must have terrifying. Windows on the world in 80. Windows on the world wine school. Alway's love from Glastonbury... 😉... Windows on the world piers corbyn. Little did they know... 💀. Only played at movie festivals at this time (unfortunately) Windows on the World is a great movie that will appeal to many of us. It is well written, new in perspective and very moving.

Windows on the world wine book. Windows on the world nyc. Windows on the world menu. Windows on the World, despite the fact that it takes place in the weeks following the 9/11 terrorist attack in New York, is a film that is urgently for our time. It is a hero's journey of a son trying to find his father in that grief-stricken landscape and the characters stand in for the millions of immigrants, legal and illegal, who contribute in their everyday lives, to the American landscape. The film seeks to counter the narrative that's all-too-prevalent in today's political and media landscape by telling a story set in America's biggest and most diverse city, at its darkest time. The script by playwright and novelist Robert Mailer Anderson (who also produced the film) is wise and completely engaging; he creates indelible characters who are ultimately inspiring and uplifting. Edward James Olmos gives what he considers to be the performance of a lifetime, and the rest of the cast is terrific as well-with a special shout-out to Glynn Turman. The direction, by Olmos's son Michael, is sure-handed, getting terrific performances from his cast, including his father, in this father-son story, and it's beautifully lensed. The music, including jazz and a title track written by Anderson, is pitch-perfect, supporting the story without getting in the way. This film should be seen by everybody-and I'm sure it will be in mainstream distribution soon, as this is a time when, although the major studios may have turned their backs on substance, terrific indie films like this one have many other possible venues. If you can't see it at a film festival, like I did, keep a keen eye out for it. Terrific and inspiring.

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Wonderful film, heartfelt and beautiful acted/ filmed. Also super sound track. Windows of the world as we know. Whats that technique you mentioned at 5.55 delfi. Windows on the world film. Along with Burning, it is the best movie that I have watched so far this year. Windows on the world ny. Windows on the world movie review. Windows on the world restaurant menu. Windows on the world cast. Windows on the world matches. Windows on the world wine course. It makes me sad because he was a loving person and a great dad, i wonder how scary it was for him up there on the attack.

Windows on the world chef. A good, interesting guest - but he seems a bit resistant to more spiritual truths and remains rooted just at the level of agriculture and organisation of human society. He does not seem keen to go back further - and beyond the mere physical/earthly. He seems to remain fixated on the earth (contrasting with, say, the Buddha - who speaks of the realm of Nirvana, which is most definitely NOT some spot or organisational centre on earth, but an immanent and transcendental realm of spiritual bliss and Knowing.

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Beautiful tribute. Thanks Andres Barrila. 2:07 BOOM airplane crashes into building. Windows on the world kevin zraly.

 

 

 

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. Carl Hunter. 2018. cast=Jenny Agutter, Bill Nighy. Frank Cottrell Boyce. Country=UK. She is really one of the actresses I admire. Shes born to be an actress. Didnt realise you were doing reviews online, David. Ive missed you. Are you wonder how many times I am watching your videos? so. I sometimes watch your videos, in my scholar time, but I never ever miss your lesson.

Thanku sir nice vedio. Superb👍. ADS Track this SHOW Summary: A detective fantasy / family drama where a love of words helps a father reconnect with a missing son. Aired: 2019 Latest Episode: HD 720 (2019-07-09) Sometimes Always Never 2019-07-09 Copyright 2017 Link Removal Policy(DMCA) How to Watch Desktop Version Mobile Version. Watch dolittle 2020, Watch power season 6 2019, Watch joker 2019, Watch star trek picard season 1 2020, Watch legacies season 2 2019, Watch frozen ii 2019, Watch vikings season 6 2019, Watch 1917 2019, Watch the flash season 6 2019, Watch bad boys for life 2020, Watch the witcher season 1 2019, Watch the mandalorian season 1 2019, Watch sometimes always never 2018 online free. A detective fantasy / family drama where a love of words helps a father reconnect with a missing son. 9movies - watch Sometimes Always Never (2018) online free in Full HD 1080p. Duration: 91 min Quality: HD Release: 2019 IMDb: 6. 9.

Muchas Gracias yo veo sus videos. usually. me ayuda a estudiar. Dios le Bendiga. Say never. I laughed way too hard at this entire trailer. Pardon my ignorance but I've heard the name Dr. Shirley before, but who was he. Genial. Será que ella canta ahí o solo hace la mímica? Realmente merece un Oscar.

I surrender The same lines i uttered before my brother died. 😭. This is a US remake of a movie from Chile. It was out in 2013, title Gloria and was quite successful in Europe. And from what I see in the US trailer, they didn't change much.

 

 

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8,9 of 10 duration: 113Minutes Levan Akin Levan Akin Stars: Bachi Valishvili. Masterpiece with true story of current state of country Georgia. Religious country and stigma of being gay. Love, attraction and public hate. This film deserves an Oscar. And then we danced reaction. And Then We dance music. And then we danced together. THIS RELEASE DATE IS KILLIN ME. He's clearly a boy, not only mentally but his body is clearly very male too.

And then we danced netflix. Welcome Robyn 😍. And Then We dance studio. And then we danced srulad. And Then We dance company. And then we danced wiki. And then we danced (2019. And then we danced full movie online. Mogityannttt dedissstrakiiii tqven deda movtyan. Love his voice x. მაგარია 🌹🌷🌸🌼💐💮♥💜💙💚💛❤💟. I saw this film in Paris, where it was widely acclaimed. I came out of the cinema with a sense of this is always going to happen; the persecution and the destruction of gay people's lives. I was not uplifted by it and although persecution against gays is acute in Russia and the former USSR I feel that this persecution is like an advanced cancer spreading through the whole body politic of these countries. But the film deserves all the accolades that it can get, despite the feeling that I do not find it a particularly interesting film. The acting of the two main protagonists was good, but no better than many other LGBTQ films I have seen. It is bad to compare, but I would urge viewers to watch the Russian film ' Stand ' which is tougher, richer in cinematic terms and deserved much more attention in the West than it got. But I will buy the DVD when it eventually surfaces and study its nuances further. There is an element in the scenario which I will not give away that reminded me of ' Call Me By Your Name ' and the pain was just as acute and far more terrible to watch due to the fact that Georgia can kill if you do not conform, and the West does not. Also the sexual love was far more explicit and frantically expressed in ' And Then We Danced ' than in the other film. It also looked authentic and bravo to the actors for achieving that. It put the sexuality into homosexuality and for that alone, against all reservations I admire and respect it. It is precisely the sexuality that makes killers of so-called normal society and the hatred of so-called ' normal ' men.

ოპაა, აბა ეხლა ნახე შენ გაწევ-გამოწევები, დაწყევლები და შეჩვენებები 😆 Teaser ვნახე და ველოდები ✌. ეს ფილმი ბრძოლაა თაობების... To me, Robyn us one of few artists who don´t need to change their music style every album. She is constant, true to her art. Many others tried to copy her couple of years ago and once the EDM went out of fashion, their popularity quickly declined. Robyn is a rare example of a musician who grows with her audience but manages to keep what makes her original.

47 years old and miss my drive-ins and friends Saturday after a killer Friday night lights and football. Çok iyi gözüküyor. ფილმზე არ ვიცი რა ვთქვა მარა, მუსიკა ასწორებს. What is his secret. And then we danced 2019. And then we danced nyc. And then we danced ფილმი. And then we danced praha. ის კაციც გეია. And Then We dancehall. And then we danced online. And then we danced prague. And then we danced lyrics. And then we danced qartulad srulad.

One of the best georgian film, must watch. Haven't seen yet but this film isn't just a simple gay movie this film stands for the idea of the expression of your self in dance and in the society you live with.
the films also shows the beauty of the national Georgian ballet. And then we danced trailer. First heard this on Girls and I couldn't wait for the full track to be released. Amazing. And then we danced cast.

And we danced, and we cried, and we laughed ❤

Ugh. this looks depressing as fuuuuuuuuuuuuuk. Daglma da gorma shegcat yvelas vinc am filmis gadagebashi miiget monawileoba. And then we danced dj. ONE OF THE BEST SONGS EVER, AWESOME BAND. გახარია და ყველაქათმებო თქვენი დედებს შესცა მთელმა საქართველომ. And then we danced soundtrack. Wooow! Increíble.

 

 

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And Then We Danced
8.4 out of 10 stars - 462 votes

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Cats Download Full Watch Here 123movies countries UK creators Andrew Lloyd Webber

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Director=Tom Hooper. genre=Musical. Average Ratings=3,3 of 10. Abstract=A tribe of cats called the Jellicles must decide yearly which one will ascend to the Heaviside Layer and come back to a new Jellicle life. Release year=2019. duration=110 m. Cats download full songs. Visually: nightmare fuel Story: great Music: stunning Hotel: Trivago. Even ignoring the baffling special effects, awkward acting an horrible attempts of humor that not even a psychopath would find funny, the movie is criminally boring in every level, nothing actually happens and when it looks like plot is developing, it stops for another painful musical number with songs that in all honesty were never really that good. Play 0:00 0:00 Settings Fullscreen level 1 Don't let them weigh you! Theyll say you're fat and next thing you know you're eating cardboard kibble and being forced to chase the dot for "exercise" level 2 we got our kitten a little house made of cardboard with a scratch mat in it he actually ate the cardboard walls so we had to take it away from him level 2 Forced? Don't lie you love that dot level 2 Ah don't tale my cats side! She needs her diet level 2 But, but, but, the dot MUST be caught! It is a magical bug! Catch and eat it you become magical, too! level 1 FOR CHRIST SAKE, GET IN THE BAG GARY level 2 He can't hear you, you gotta speak up! GARY GET IN THE BAG IT'S NOT SAFE level 1 ”Get in! ” ”But. Im only getting weig—” ”DONT QUESTION ME! ” level 2 "They did the same to me and I woke up without balls. level 1 Never leave a buddy behind. level 1 "DAVE! DAVE, GET IN HERE! THEY'RE GONNA TAKE YOUR BALLS. level 1 Me getting my way too drunk friend into the uber on a Saturday night level 2 My kid drives for Lyft. He says if your friend is that drunk, please call Uber. level 1 “Ill save you! ” “Dude. Why are you like this. ” level 1 Im so confused whats happening and I probably sound dumb, but whats the lil one doing? level 2 The little one is scared and is trying to "save" his friend by taking him out of the scary place and into their crate. Normally cats dont try to pick up cats that are larger than they are, so that's different. But it is a heartwarming video, hes just trying to help.

Cats download full episode. 1:55 😂😂. Cats download full video. Cats download full hindi.

 

Can I add another PSA to this one and remind everyone that salt lamps are also highly toxic to your favorite furballs? If your dog or cat can reach a salt lamp, they will probably lick it, enough to injest lethal amounts (they're salt, they taste good. I'm glad your kitty is recovering. Here's hoping for long and happy lives for you all. Editing to add: For the record, we have a toddler-cat. Her first move when she encounters anything new is to lick it. She licks *everything. She licked the salt lamp we used to have (only a few times- that's what prompted us to look into whether it was safe. I'm happy that lots of people have never had problems with their salt lamps and pets, but please don't assume that's always going to stay the case. Please keep an eye on them, even if you're certain they have zero interest in the lamp.

Cats are like tf is up with this dude? Who mans is this. Update: we hugged update 2: making up for missed pets also, he is not declawed if you cant already tell from the couch. only trimmed by the vet whenever we go another thing to clarify, he was never alone during those 10 days. i have two roommates who feed and pet him regularly when im gone - no way im leaving my cat alone at home and i didnt know calling pets ‘sons was a gross thing, in turkish we call every animal we see ‘son, sonny or some variation - doesnt translate well i suppose.

Cats download full screen. Level 1 The air conditioner, and cicadas outside. level 2 Yep. That's what I hear too! They are loud this time of year. My wife is from California, and she freaked out the first time she heard them. She thought aliens were invading. level 2 Same here. Love the cicadas. It makes everything so peaceful. Were renting a house right now but I want our first home purchase to have enough trees or to be near the woods so I can always have this sound in the summer months level 2 I saw a post recently on r/Arizona where someone asked "what is the insect that nests in trees and screams all day. I laughed at the accuracy of the description. It's all I've heard for the past 2 months. level 2 The fan, and cicadas outside. level 2 Growing up, I thought the sound of cicadas was the sound of electricity flowing through the power lines on hot summer days. level 2 omfggggggggg i don't have cicadas where i live but i heard some in vermont and they are annoying as FUCK level 2 I miss that sound so much, I haven't been home during the summer in a few years. level 2 Better than cicadas inside level 1 Seagulls. Squaking little bastards. level 2 "I said Seagulls stop it now. level 2 Rockin' rockin' and rollin' level 2 I got tagged by a fucking horde of them today. There's a solid 8 shits on my rear window level 2 A Flock of Seagulls I Ran (so far away.

The domestic cat [1] 5. Latin: Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal. They are often called house cats when kept as indoor pets or simply cats when there is no need to distinguish them from other felids and felines. [6] Cats are often valued by humans for companionship and for their ability to hunt vermin. There are more than 70 cat breeds, though different associations proclaim different numbers according to their standards. Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws, and teeth adapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular and predatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. They can see in near darkness. Like most other mammals, cats have poorer color vision and a better sense of smell than humans. Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a social species and cat communication includes the use of a variety of vocalizations ( mewing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling, and grunting) as well as cat pheromones and types of cat-specific body language. [7] Cats have a high breeding rate. [8] Under controlled breeding, they can be bred and shown as registered pedigree pets, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by neutering, as well as the abandonment of former household pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, requiring population control. [9] In certain areas outside cats' native range, this has contributed, along with habitat destruction and other factors, to the extinction of many bird species. Cats have been known to extirpate a bird species within specific regions and may have contributed to the extinction of isolated island populations. [10] Cats are thought to be primarily responsible for the extinction of 33 species of birds, and the presence of feral and free-ranging cats makes some otherwise suitable locations unsuitable for attempted species reintroduction. [11] Since cats were venerated in ancient Egypt, they were commonly believed to have been domesticated there, 12] but there may have been instances of domestication as early as the Neolithic from around 9, 500 years ago (7, 500 BC. 13] A genetic study in 2007 concluded that domestic cats are descended from Near Eastern wildcats, having diverged around 8, 000 BC in the Middle East. [12] 14] A 2016 study found that leopard cats were undergoing domestication independently in China around 5, 500 BC, though this line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domesticated populations of today. [15] 16] As of a 2007 study, cats are the second most popular pet in the US by number of pets owned, behind freshwater fish. [17] In a 2010 study they were ranked the third most popular pet in the UK, after fish and dogs, with around 8 million being owned. [18] Taxonomy and evolution Main article: Cat evolution The African wildcat, Felis silvestris lybica, is an extant subspecies that is ancestral to the domestic cat. The domestic cat is believed to have evolved from the Near Eastern wildcat, whose range covers vast portions of the Middle East westward to the Atlantic coast of Africa. [19] 20] Between 70, 000 and 100, 000 years ago the animal gave rise to the genetic lineage that eventually produced all domesticated cats, 21] having diverged from the Near Eastern wildcat around 8, 000 BC in the Middle East. [12] 14] The felids are a rapidly evolving family of mammals that share a common ancestor only 10–15 million years ago [22] and include lions, tigers, cougars and many others. Within this family, domestic cats ( Felis catus) are part of the genus Felis, which is a group of small cats containing about seven species (depending upon classification scheme. 1] 23] Members of the genus are found worldwide and include the jungle cat ( Felis chaus) of southeast Asia, European wildcat ( F. silvestris silvestris) African wildcat ( F. s. lybica) the Chinese mountain cat ( F. bieti) and the Arabian sand cat ( F. margarita) among others. [24] The domestic cat was first classified as Felis catus by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae published in 1758. [1] 2] Because of modern phylogenetics, domestic cats are usually regarded as another subspecies of the wildcat, F. silvestris. [1] 3] 25] This has resulted in mixed usage of the terms, as the domestic cat can be called by its subspecies name, Felis silvestris catus. [1] 3] 25] Wildcats have also been referred to as various subspecies of F. catus, 25] but in 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature fixed the name for wildcats as F. [26] The most common name in use for the domestic cat remains F. catus, following a convention for domesticated animals of using the earliest (the senior) synonym proposed. [26] Sometimes, the domestic cat has been called Felis domesticus [27] or Felis domestica, 1] as proposed by German naturalist J. C. P. Erxleben in 1777, but these are not valid taxonomic names and have been used only rarely in scientific literature, 28] because Linnaeus's binomial takes precedence. [29] A population of Transcaucasian black feral cats was once classified as Felis daemon ( Satunin 1904) but now this population is considered to be a part of domestic cat. [30] All the cats in this genus share a common ancestor that is believed to have lived around 6–7 million years ago in the Near East (the Middle East. 31] The exact relationships within the Felidae are close but still uncertain, 32] 33] e. g. the Chinese mountain cat is sometimes classified (under the name Felis silvestris bieti) as a subspecies of the wildcat, like the North African variety F. lybica. [3] 32] Ancient Egyptian sculpture of the cat goddess Bastet. The earliest evidence of felines as Egyptian deities comes from a c. 3100 BC. In comparison to dogs, cats have not undergone major changes during the domestication process, as the form and behavior of the domestic cat is not radically different from those of wildcats and domestic cats are perfectly capable of surviving in the wild. [34] 35] Fully domesticated house cats often interbreed with feral F. catus populations, 36] producing hybrids such as the Kellas cat. This limited evolution during domestication means that hybridisation can occur with many other felids, notably the Asian leopard cat. [37] Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have predisposed them for domestication as pets. [35] These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence. [38] 12–17 Several small felid species may have an inborn tendency towards tameness. [35] Cats have either a mutualistic or commensal relationship with humans. Two main theories are given about how cats were domesticated. In one, people deliberately tamed cats in a process of artificial selection as they were useful predators of vermin. [39] This has been criticized as implausible, because the reward for such an effort may have been too little; cats generally do not carry out commands and although they do eat rodents, other species such as ferrets or terriers may be better at controlling these pests. [3] The alternative idea is that cats were simply tolerated by people and gradually diverged from their wild relatives through natural selection, as they adapted to hunting the vermin found around humans in towns and villages. [3] Nomenclature and etymology The English word ' cat. Old English catt) is in origin a loanword, introduced to many languages of Europe from Latin cattus [40] and Byzantine Greek κάττα, including Portuguese and Spanish gato, French chat, German Katze, Lithuanian katė, and Old Church Slavonic kotka, among others. [41] The ultimate source of the word is Afroasiatic, presumably from Late Egyptian čaute, 42] the feminine of čaus "wildcat. An alternative word with cognates in many languages is English ' puss. pussycat. Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian pus, pusekatt. Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and Irish puiscín. The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply arisen from a sound used to attract a cat. [43] 44] A group of cats is referred to as a "clowder" or a "glaring. 45] a male cat is called a "tom" or "tomcat" 46] or a "gib. 47] if neutered) an unaltered female is called a "queen. 48] and a juvenile cat is referred to as a " kitten. The male progenitor of a cat, especially a pedigreed cat, is its "sire. 49] and its female progenitor is its "dam. 50] In Early Modern English, the word 'kitten' was interchangeable with the now-obsolete word 'catling. 51] A pedigreed cat is one whose ancestry is recorded by a cat fancier organization. A purebred cat is one whose ancestry contains only individuals of the same breed. Many pedigreed and especially purebred cats are exhibited as show cats. Cats of unrecorded, mixed ancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired or domestic long-haired cats, by coat type, or commonly as random-bred, moggies (chiefly British) or (using terms borrowed from dog breeding) mongrels or mutt-cats. While the African wildcat is the ancestral subspecies from which domestic cats are descended, and wildcats and domestic cats can completely interbreed (being subspecies of the same species) several intermediate stages occur between domestic pet and pedigree cats on one hand and entirely wild animals on the other. The semiferal cat, a mostly outdoor cat, is not owned by any one individual, but is generally friendly to people and may be fed by several households. Feral cats are associated with human habitation areas and may be fed by people or forage for food, but are typically wary of human interaction. [36] Biology Anatomy Main article: Cat anatomy Diagram of the general anatomy of a male Domestic cats are similar in size to the other members of the genus Felis, typically weighing between 4 and 5 kg (9 and 10 lb. 32] Some breeds, such as the Maine Coon, can occasionally exceed 11 kg (24 lb. Conversely, very small cats, less than 2 kg (4 lb) have been reported. [52] The world record for the largest cat is 21 kg (50 lb. 53] The smallest adult cat ever officially recorded weighed around 1 kg (2 lb. 53] Feral cats tend to be lighter as they have more limited access to food than house cats. In the Boston area, the average feral adult male will weigh 4 kg (9 lb) and average feral female 3 kg (7 lb. 54] Cats average about 23–25 cm (9–10 in) in height and 46 cm (18 in) in head/body length (males being larger than females) with tails averaging 30 cm (12 in) in length. [55] Cats have seven cervical vertebrae, as do almost all mammals; 13 thoracic vertebrae (humans have 12) seven lumbar vertebrae (humans have five) three sacral vertebrae like most mammals (humans have five) and a variable number of caudal vertebrae in the tail (humans retain three to five caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal coccyx. 56] 11 The extra lumbar and thoracic vertebrae account for the cat's spinal mobility and flexibility. Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the pelvis. [56] 16 Unlike human arms, cat forelimbs are attached to the shoulder by free-floating clavicle bones which allow them to pass their body through any space into which they can fit their head. [57] The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful and specialized jaw. [58] 35 Within the jaw, cats have teeth adapted for killing prey and tearing meat. When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teeth, inserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cord, causing irreversible paralysis and death. [59] Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae. [59] The premolar and first molar together compose the carnassial pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors. These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication. [58] 37 Though cats tend to have better teeth than most humans, with decay generally less likely because of a thicker protective layer of enamel, a less damaging saliva, less retention of food particles between teeth, and a diet mostly devoid of sugar, they are nonetheless subject to occasional tooth loss and infection. [60] Cats, like dogs, are digitigrades. They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg. [61] Cats are capable of walking very precisely because, like all felines, they directly register; that is, they place each hind paw (almost) directly in the print of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks. This also provides sure footing for their hind paws when they navigate rough terrain. Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" gait; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. This trait is shared with camels and giraffes. As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait changes to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals (and many other land animals, such as lizards) the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously. [62] Like almost all members of the Felidae, cats have protractable and retractable claws. [63] In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and fur around the paw 's toe pads. This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey. The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet. [64] Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws. They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing, kneading, or for extra traction on soft surfaces. Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws. [65] The fifth front claw (the dewclaw) is proximal to the other claws. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger. This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on the paws of big cats and dogs. It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping. Some breeds of cats are prone to polydactyly (extra toes and claws. 65] These are particularly common along the northeast coast of North America. [66] Physiology Cats are familiar and easily kept animals, and their physiology has been particularly well studied; it generally resembles those of other carnivorous mammals, but displays several unusual features probably attributable to cats' descent from desert-dwelling species. [27] For instance, cats are able to tolerate quite high temperatures: Humans generally start to feel uncomfortable when their skin temperature passes about 38 C (100 F) but cats show no discomfort until their skin reaches around 52 C (126 F. 58] 46 and can tolerate temperatures of up to 56 C (133 F) if they have access to water. [67] Normal physiological values [68] 330 Body temperature 38. 6 C (101. 5 F) Heart rate 120–140 beats per minute Breathing rate 16–40 breaths per minute Thermograph of various body parts of a cat Cats conserve heat by reducing the flow of blood to their skin and lose heat by evaporation through their mouths. Cats have minimal ability to sweat, with glands located primarily in their paw pads, 69] and pant for heat relief only at very high temperatures [70] but may also pant when stressed. A cat's body temperature does not vary throughout the day; this is part of cats' general lack of circadian rhythms and may reflect their tendency to be active both during the day and at night. [71] 1 Cats' feces are comparatively dry and their urine is highly concentrated, both of which are adaptations to allow cats to retain as much water as possible. [27] Their kidneys are so efficient, they can survive on a diet consisting only of meat, with no additional water, 72] and can even rehydrate by drinking seawater. [71] 29 [73] While domestic cats are able to swim, they are generally reluctant to enter water as it quickly leads to exhaustion. [74] Cats are obligate carnivores: their physiology has evolved to efficiently process meat, and they have difficulty digesting plant matter. [27] In contrast to omnivores such as rats, which only require about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat's diet must be protein. [27] Cats are unusually dependent on a constant supply of the amino acid arginine, and a diet lacking arginine causes marked weight loss and can be rapidly fatal. [75] Another unusual feature is that the cat cannot produce taurine, with taurine deficiency causing macular degeneration, wherein the cat's retina slowly degenerates, causing irreversible blindness. [27] A cat's gastrointestinal tract is adapted to meat eating, being much shorter than that of omnivores and having low levels of several of the digestive enzymes needed to digest carbohydrates. [76] These traits severely limit the cat's ability to digest and use plant-derived nutrients, as well as certain fatty acids. [76] Despite the cat's meat-oriented physiology, several vegetarian or vegan cat foods have been marketed that are supplemented with chemically synthesized taurine and other nutrients, in attempts to produce a complete diet. However, some of these products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require, 77] and diets containing no animal products pose the risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies. [78] However, vets in the United States have expressed concern that many domestic cats are overfed. [79] Cats do eat grass occasionally. A proposed explanation is that cats use grass as a source of folic acid. Another proposed explanation is that it is used to supply dietary fiber, helping the cat defecate more easily and expel parasites and other harmful material through feces and vomit. [80] Senses Cats have excellent night vision and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision. [58] 43 This is partly the result of cat eyes having a tapetum lucidum, which reflects any light that passes through the retina back into the eye, thereby increasing the eye's sensitivity to dim light. [81] Another adaptation to dim light is the large pupils of cats' eyes. Unlike some big cats, such as tigers, domestic cats have slit pupils. [82] These slit pupils can focus bright light without chromatic aberration, and are needed since the domestic cat's pupils are much larger, relative to their eyes, than the pupils of the big cats. [82] At low light levels a cat's pupils will expand to cover most of the exposed surface of its eyes. [83] However, domestic cats have rather poor color vision and (like most nonprimate mammals) have only two types of cones, optimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish green; they have limited ability to distinguish between red and green. [84] A 1993 paper reported a response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the rods which might be due to a third type of cone. However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true trichromatic vision. [85] Cats have excellent hearing and can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies. They can hear higher-pitched sounds than either dogs or humans, detecting frequencies from 55 Hz to 79, 000 Hz, a range of 10. 5 octaves, while humans and dogs both have ranges of about 9 octaves. [86] 87] Cats can hear ultrasound, which is important in hunting [88] because many species of rodents make ultrasonic calls. [89] However, they do not communicate using ultrasound like rodents do. Cats' hearing is also sensitive and among the best of any mammal, 86] being most acute in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz. [90] This sensitivity is further enhanced by the cat's large movable outer ears (their pinnae) which both amplify sounds and help detect the direction of a noise. [88] Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed olfactory bulb and a large surface of olfactory mucosa, about 5. 8 cm 2 (0. 90 in 2) in area, which is about twice that of humans. [91] Cats are sensitive to pheromones such as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol, 92] which they use to communicate through urine spraying and marking with scent glands. [93] Many cats also respond strongly to plants that contain nepetalactone, especially catnip, as they can detect that substance at less than one part per billion. [94] About 70–80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone. [95] This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine ( Actinidia polygama) and the herb valerian; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors. [96] Cats have relatively few taste buds compared to humans (470 or so versus more than 9, 000 on the human tongue. 97] Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste sweetness. [98] Their taste buds instead respond to amino acids, bitter tastes, and acids. [99] Cats and many other animals have a Jacobson's organ located in their mouths that allows them to taste-smell certain aromas in a way of which humans have no experience. Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 100 F (38 C) which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated (which would signal to the cat that the "prey" item is long dead and therefore possibly toxic or decomposing. 97] Cats' whiskers are highly sensitive to touch. To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable whiskers (vibrissae) over their body, especially their faces. These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage. [58] 47 Most breeds of cat have a noted fondness for settling in high places, or perching. In the wild, a higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats may strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch, as does a leopard. [100] Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory. During a fall from a high place, a cat can reflexively twist its body and right itself using its acute sense of balance and flexibility. [101] This is known as the cat righting reflex. An individual cat always rights itself in the same way, provided it has the time to do so, during a fall. The height required for this to occur is around 90 cm (3. 0 ft. Cats without a tail (e. Manx cats) also have this ability, since a cat mostly moves its hind legs and relies on conservation of angular momentum to set up for landing, and the tail is little used for this feat. [102] Health The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent years. In the early 1980s, it was about seven years, 103] 33 [104] rising to 9. 4 years in 1995 [103] 33 and 12–15 years in 2014. [105] However, cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s, 106] with the oldest known cat, Creme Puff, dying at a verified age of 38. [107] Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: one study found neutered male cats live twice as long as intact males, while spayed female cats live 62% longer than intact females. [103] 35 Having a cat neutered confers health benefits, because castrated males cannot develop testicular cancer, spayed females cannot develop uterine or ovarian cancer, and both have a reduced risk of mammary cancer. [108] Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats. [109] 45 [110] 1358 Neutered cats in managed colonies can also live long lives. [111] 112] 113] 114] Diseases Cats can suffer from a wide range of health problems, including infectious diseases, parasites, injuries, and chronic disease. Vaccinations are available for many of these diseases, and domestic cats are regularly given treatments to eliminate parasites such as worms and fleas. [115] Poisoning In addition to obvious dangers such as rodenticides, insecticides, and herbicides, cats may be poisoned by many chemicals usually considered safe by their human guardians, 116] because their livers are less effective at some forms of detoxification than those of many other animals, including humans and dogs. [27] 117] Some of the most common causes of poisoning in cats are antifreeze and rodent baits. [118] Cats may be particularly sensitive to environmental pollutants. [116] 119] When a cat has a sudden or prolonged serious illness without any obvious cause, it has possibly been exposed to a toxin. Many human medicines should never be given to cats. For example, the painkiller paracetamol (or acetaminophen, sold as Tylenol and Panadol) is extremely toxic to cats: even very small doses need immediate treatment and can be fatal. [120] 121] Even aspirin, which is sometimes used to treat arthritis in cats, is much more toxic to them than to humans [121] and must be administered cautiously. [116] Similarly, application of minoxidil (Rogaine) to the skin of cats, either accidentally or by well-meaning guardians attempting to counter loss of fur, has sometimes been fatal. [122] Essential oils can be toxic to cats and cases have been reported of serious illnesses caused by tea tree oil, including flea treatments and shampoos containing it. [123] Other common household substances that should be used with caution around cats include mothballs and other naphthalene products. [116] Phenol -based products (e. Pine-Sol, Dettol /Lysol or hexachlorophene) 116] are often used for cleaning and disinfecting near cats' feeding areas or litter boxes, but these can sometimes be fatal. [124] Ethylene glycol, often used as an automotive antifreeze, is particularly appealing to cats, and as little as a teaspoonful can be fatal. [125] Some human foods are toxic to cats; for example chocolate can cause theobromine poisoning, although (unlike dogs) few cats will eat chocolate. [126] Large amounts of onions or garlic are also poisonous to cats. [116] Many houseplants are also dangerous, 127] such as Philodendron species and the leaves of the Easter lily ( Lilium longiflorum) which can cause permanent and life-threatening kidney damage. [128] Genetics Main article: Cat genetics The domesticated cat and its closest wild ancestor are both diploid organisms that possess 38 chromosomes [129] and roughly 20, 000 genes. [130] About 250 heritable genetic disorders have been identified in cats, many similar to human inborn errors. [131] The high level of similarity among the metabolism of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using genetic tests that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats as animal models in the study of the human diseases. [132] 133] Behavior Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night. [134] 135] The timing of cats' activity is quite flexible and varied, which means house cats may be more active in the morning and evening, as a response to greater human activity at these times. [136] Although they spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their home, housecats can range many hundreds of meters from this central point, and are known to establish territories that vary considerably in size, in one study ranging from 7 to 28 hectares (17–69 acres. 135] Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older. The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average. Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours. The term " cat nap " for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep (lightly) for a brief period. While asleep, cats experience short periods of rapid eye movement sleep often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are dreaming. [137] Sociability Although wildcats are solitary, the social behavior of domestic cats is much more variable and ranges from widely dispersed individuals to feral cat colonies that form around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females. [138] 139] Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others. [28] Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories. [93] These territories are marked by urine spraying, by rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation. [93] Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts. Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and growling, and if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks. Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a pack mentality, and always hunt alone. [140] However, some pet cats are poorly socialized. In particular, older cats may show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which may include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression. [141] Though cats and dogs are believed to be natural enemies, they can live together if correctly socialized. [142] Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals. Ethologically, the human keeper of a cat may function as a sort of surrogate for the cat's mother, 143] and adult housecats live their lives in a kind of extended kittenhood, 144] a form of behavioral neoteny. The high-pitched sounds housecats make to solicit food may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly hard for humans to ignore. [145] Communication Domestic cats use many vocalizations for communication, including purring, trilling, hissing, growling / snarling, grunting, and several different forms of meowing. [7] By contrast, feral cats are generally silent. 146] 208 Their types of body language, including position of ears and tail, relaxation of the whole body, and kneading of the paws, are all indicators of mood. The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats; 147] 148] for example, a raised tail acts as a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility. Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group's social hierarchy, with dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate animals. [148] Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed by social grooming, which is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head. [139] Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and nursing kittens. Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed, 149] 150] or eating. The mechanism by which cats purr is elusive. The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound. [151] It was, until recent times, believed that only the cats of the Felis genus could purr. However, felids of the Panthera genus ( tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard) also produce sounds similar to purring, but only when exhaling. [152] Grooming The hooked papillae on a cat's tongue act like a hairbrush to help clean and detangle fur. A tabby housecat uses its brush-like tongue to groom itself, licking its fur to straighten it. Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coat to keep it clean. [153] The cat's tongue has backwards-facing spines about 500  μm long, which are called papillae. These contain keratin which makes them rigid [154] so the papillae act like a hairbrush. Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate hairballs of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming. These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2–3 cm (0. 8–1. 2 in) long. Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through the gut, as well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush. [153] Fighting Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females. [155] Among feral cats, the most common reason for cat fighting is competition between two males to mate with a female. In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male. [156] Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home. [155] Female cats also fight over territory or to defend their kittens. Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to sex hormones. [157] When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting. [147] Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward. They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent. Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites. Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs. [158] Serious damage is rare, as the fights are usually short in duration, with the loser running away with little more than a few scratches to the face and ears. However, fights for mating rights are typically more severe and injuries may include deep puncture wounds and lacerations. Normally, serious injuries from fighting are limited to infections of scratches and bites, though these can occasionally kill cats if untreated. In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus. [159] Sexually active males are usually involved in many fights during their lives, and often have decidedly battered faces with obvious scars and cuts to their ears and nose. [160] Hunting and feeding A cat that is playing with a caught mouse. Cats play with their prey to weaken or exhaust them before making a kill. Cats hunt small prey, primarily birds and rodents, 161] and are often used as a form of pest control. [162] 163] Domestic cats are a major predator of wildlife in the United States, killing an estimated 1. 4–3. 7 billion birds and 6. 9–20. 7 billion mammals annually. [164] 165] The bulk of predation in the United States is done by 80 million feral and stray cats. Effective measures to reduce this population are elusive, meeting opposition from cat enthusiasts. [164] 165] In the case of free-ranging pets, equipping cats with bells and not letting them out at night will reduce wildlife predation. [161] Free-fed feral cats and house cats tend to consume many small meals in a single day, although the frequency and size of meals varies between individuals. [140] Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or waiting in ambush until an animal comes close enough to be captured. [166] Although it is not certain, the strategy used may depend on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds. [167] 153 Perhaps the best known element of cats' hunting behavior, which is commonly misunderstood and often appalls cat owners because it looks like torture, is that cats often appear to "play" with prey by releasing it after capture. This behavior is due to an instinctive imperative to ensure that the prey is weak enough to be killed without endangering the cat. [168] This behavior is referred to in the idiom "cat-and-mouse game" or simply " cat and mouse. Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians. Ethologist Paul Leyhausen proposed that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to the dominance hierarchy, in which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top. [169] Anthropologist and zoologist Desmond Morris, in his 1986 book Catwatching, suggests, when cats bring home mice or birds, they are attempting to teach their human to hunt, or trying to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten. 170] 171] Morris's hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement with raising kittens. [167] 153 Domestic cats select food based on its temperature, smell and texture; they dislike chilled foods and respond most strongly to moist foods rich in amino acids, which are similar to meat. [78] 140] Cats may reject novel flavors (a response termed neophobia) and learn quickly to avoid foods that have tasted unpleasant in the past. [140] They may also avoid sugary foods and milk. Most adult cats are lactose intolerant; the sugars in milk are not easily digested and may cause soft stools or diarrhea. [140] 172] They can also develop odd eating habits. Some cats like to eat or chew on other things, most commonly wool, but also plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal. This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten. [173] 174] Though cats usually prey on animals less than half their size, a feral cat in Australia has been photographed killing an adult pademelon of around the cat's weight at 4 kg (8. 8 lb. 175] Since cats lack lips [176] to create suction, they use a lapping method with the tongue to draw liquid upwards into their mouths. Lapping at a rate of four times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly retracts it, drawing water upwards. [177] Play Play fight between kittens, age 14 weeks Domestic cats, especially young kittens, are known for their love of play. This behavior mimics hunting and is important in helping kittens learn to stalk, capture, and kill prey. [178] Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans. This behavior may be a way for cats to practice the skills needed for real combat, and might also reduce any fear they associate with launching attacks on other animals. [179] Owing to the close similarity between play and hunting, cats prefer to play with objects that resemble prey, such as small furry toys that move rapidly, but rapidly lose interest (they become habituated) in a toy they have played with before. [180] Cats also tend to play with toys more when they are hungry. [181] String is often used as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can become caught at the base of the cat's tongue and then move into the intestines, a medical emergency which can cause serious illness, even death. [182] Owing to the risks posed by cats eating string, it is sometimes replaced with a laser pointer 's dot, which cats may chase. [183] There are several important issues related to using a laser with a cat. Lasers can cause blindness in cats. Even lasers that are sold as "eye safe" 184] can actually be much higher powered than claimed, and can cause damage to cats' eyes. [185] In addition, the cat thinks of the laser dot as prey, but gets frustrated when unable to catch it. [186] Reproduction When cats mate, the tomcat (male) bites the scruff of the female's neck as she assumes a position conducive to mating known as lordosis behavior. Radiography of a pregnant cat (about one month and a half Female cats are seasonally polyestrous, which means they may have many periods of heat over the course of a year, the season beginning in spring and ending in late autumn. Heat periods occur about every two weeks and last about 4 to 7 days. [187] Multiple males will be attracted to a female in heat. The males will fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate. At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate. The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120–150 backwards-pointing penile spines, which are about 1 mm long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which is a trigger for ovulation. This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second (or more) mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception. [188] After mating, the female washes her vulva thoroughly. If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female will attack him. After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat. [187] Because ovulation is not always triggered by a single mating, females may not be impregnated by the first male with which they mate. [189] Furthermore, cats are superfecund; that is, a female may mate with more than one male when she is in heat, with the result that different kittens in a litter may have different fathers. [187] At 124 hours after conception, the morula forms. At 148 hours, early blastocysts form. At 10–12 days, implantation occurs. [190] 191] The gestation period for cats is between 64 and 67 days, with an average of 66 days. [192] The size of a litter usually is three to five kittens, with the first litter usually smaller than subsequent litters. Kittens are weaned between six and seven weeks old, and cats normally reach sexual maturity at 5–10 months (females) and to 5–7 months (males) although this can vary depending on breed. [187] Females can have two to three litters per year, so may produce up to 150 kittens in their breeding span of around ten years. [187] Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks of age, 193] when they are ready to leave their mother. They can be surgically sterilized (spayed or castrated) as early as 7 weeks to limit unwanted reproduction. [194] This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, territory marking (spraying urine) in males and yowling (calling) in females. Traditionally, this surgery was performed at around six to nine months of age, but it is increasingly being performed prior to puberty, at about three to six months. [195] In the US, about 80% of household cats are neutered. [196] Ecology Habitats Cats are a cosmopolitan species and are found across much of the world. [34] Geneticist Stephen James O'Brien, of the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, Maryland, remarked on how successful cats have been in evolutionary terms: Cats are one of evolution's most charismatic creatures. They can live on the highest mountains and in the hottest deserts. 197] They are extremely adaptable and are now present on all continents except Antarctica, and on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the Kerguelen Islands. [198] 199] Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands. [200] Their habitats even include small oceanic islands with no human inhabitants. [201] Further, the close relatives of domestic cats, the African wildcat ( Felis silvestris lybica) and the Arabian sand cat ( Felis margarita) both inhabit desert environments, 3] and domestic cats still show similar adaptations and behaviors. [27] The cat's ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat has led to its designation as one of the world's worst invasive species. [202] As domestic cats are little altered from wildcats, they can readily interbreed. This hybridization poses a danger to the genetic distinctiveness of some wildcat populations, particularly in Scotland and Hungary and possibly also the Iberian Peninsula. [37] Feral cats Feral cats are domestic cats that were born in or have reverted to a wild state. They are unfamiliar with and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas. [9] The numbers of feral cats is not known, but estimates of the US feral population range from 25 to 60 million. [9] Feral cats may live alone, but most are found in large colonies, which occupy a specific territory and are usually associated with a source of food. [203] Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the Colosseum and Forum Romanum, with cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers. [204] Public attitudes towards feral cats vary widely, ranging from seeing them as free-ranging pets, to regarding them as vermin. [205] One common approach to reducing the feral cat population is termed 'trap-neuter-return' where the cats are trapped, neutered, immunized against rabies and the feline leukemia virus, and then released. Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again. Volunteers continue to feed and give care to these cats throughout their lives. Given this support, their lifespans are increased, and behavior and nuisance problems caused by competition for food are reduced. [203] Impact on prey species Carrying half of a rabbit To date, little scientific data is available to assess the impact of cat predation on prey populations. Even well-fed domestic cats may hunt and kill, mainly catching small mammals, but also birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates. [161] 206] Hunting by domestic cats may be contributing to the decline in the numbers of birds in urban areas, although the importance of this effect remains controversial. [207] In the wild, the introduction of feral cats during human settlement can threaten native species with extinction. [201] In many cases, controlling or eliminating the populations of non-native cats can produce a rapid recovery in native animals. [208] However, the ecological role of introduced cats can be more complicated. For example, cats can control the numbers of rats, which also prey on birds' eggs and young, so a cat population can protect an endangered bird species by suppressing mesopredators. [209] In isolated landmasses, such as Australasia, there are often no other native, medium-sized quadrupedal predators (including other feline species) this tends to exacerbate the impact of feral cats on small native animals. [210] Native species such as the New Zealand kakapo and the Australian bettong, for example, tend to be more ecologically vulnerable and behaviorally "naive" when faced with predation by cats. [211] Feral cats have had a major impact on these native species and have played a leading role in the endangerment and extinction of many animals. [212] Even in places with ancient and numerous cat populations, such as Western Europe, cats appear to be growing in number and independently of their environments' carrying capacity (such as the numbers of prey available. 213] 214] This may be explained, at least in part, by an abundance of food, from sources including feeding by pet owners and scavenging. For instance, research in Britain suggests that a high proportion of cats hunt only "recreationally. 214] And in South Sweden, where research in 1982 found that the population density of cats was as high as 2, 000 per square kilometre (5, 200/sq mi. 213] Impact on birds The domestic cat is a significant predator of birds. UK assessments indicate they may be accountable for an estimated 64. 8 million bird deaths each year. [161] A 2012 study suggests feral cats may kill several billion birds each year in the United States. [215] Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of house sparrow mortality is linked to the domestic cat. [216] In the recovery of ringed robins ( Erithacus rubecula) and dunnocks ( Prunella modularis) 31% of deaths were a result of cat predation. [217] In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as coyotes which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as opossums and raccoons on bird numbers and variety. [218] The proposal that cat populations will increase when the numbers of these top predators decline is called the mesopredator release hypothesis. On islands, birds can contribute as much as 60% of a cat's diet. [219] In nearly all cases, however, the cat cannot be identified as the sole cause for reducing the numbers of island birds, and in some instances, eradication of cats has caused a 'mesopredator release' effect; 220] where the suppression of top carnivores creates an abundance of smaller predators that cause a severe decline in their shared prey. Domestic cats are, however, known to be a contributing factor to the decline of many species, a factor that has ultimately led, in some cases, to extinction. The South Island piopio, Chatham rail, 217] the New Zealand merganser, 221] and the common diving petrel [222] are a few from a long list, with the most extreme case being the flightless Lyall's wren, which was driven to extinction only a few years after its discovery. [223] 224] Some of the same factors that have promoted adaptive radiation of island avifauna over evolutionary time appear to promote vulnerability to non-native species in modern time. The susceptibility of many island birds is undoubtedly due to evolution in the absence of mainland predators, competitors, diseases, and parasites, in addition to lower reproductive rates and extended incubation periods. [225] The loss of flight, or reduced flying ability is also characteristic of many island endemics. [226] These biological aspects have increased vulnerability to extinction in the presence of introduced species, such as the domestic cat. [227] Equally, behavioral traits exhibited by island species, such as "predatory naivety" 228] and ground-nesting, 225] have also contributed to their susceptibility. Interaction with humans Cats are common pets throughout the world, and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million. [12] Although cat guardianship has commonly been associated with women, 229] a 2007 Gallup poll reported that men and women in the United States of America were equally likely to own a cat. [230] As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international fur [231] and leather industries for making coats, hats, blankets and stuffed toys; 232] and shoes, gloves and musical instruments respectively [233] about 24 cats are needed to make a cat fur coat. 234] This use has now been outlawed in the United States, Australia, and the European Union. [235] Cat pelts have been used for superstitious purposes as part of the practise of witchcraft, 236] and are still made into blankets in Switzerland as folk remedies believed to help rheumatism. [237] In the Western intellectual tradition, the idea of cats as everyday objects have served to illustrate problems of quantum mechanics in the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment. A few attempts to build a cat census have been made over the years, both through associations or national and international organizations (such as the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies 's one [238] and over the net, 239] 240] but such a task does not seem simple to achieve. General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million. [241] 242] 243] 244] 245] 246] Infections transmitted from cats to humans Cats can be infected or infested with viruses, bacteria, fungus, protozoans, arthropods or worms that can transmit diseases to humans. In some cases, the cat exhibits no symptoms of the disease, 247] however, the same disease can then become evident in a human. The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and immune status of the person. Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat feces and parasites exiting the cat's body. [248] 249] Some of the infections of most concern include salmonella, cat scratch disease and toxoplasmosis. [247] History and mythology A 19th century drawing of a tabby cat Traditionally, historians tended to think ancient Egypt was the site of cat domestication, owing to the clear depictions of house cats in Egyptian paintings about 3, 600 years old. [3] However, in 2004, a Neolithic grave excavated in Shillourokambos, Cyprus, contained the skeletons, laid close to one another, of both a human and a cat. The grave is estimated to be 9, 500 years old, pushing back the earliest known feline–human association significantly. [14] 250] 251] The cat specimen is large and closely resembles the African wildcat, rather than present-day domestic cats. This discovery, combined with genetic studies, suggests cats were probably domesticated in the Middle East, in the Fertile Crescent around the time of the development of agriculture, and then were brought to Cyprus and Egypt. [252] Direct evidence for the domestication of cats 5, 300 years ago in Quanhucun, China has been published by archaeologists and paleontologists from the University of Washington and Chinese Academy of Sciences. The cats are believed to have been attracted to the village by rodents, which in turn were attracted by grain cultivated and stored by humans. [253] In ancient Egypt, cats were sacred animals, with the goddess Bastet often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness. [254] 220 The Romans are often credited with introducing the domestic cat from Egypt to Europe; 254] 223 in Roman Aquitaine, a first- or second-century engraving of a young girl holding a cat is one of two earliest depictions of the Roman domesticated cat. [255] However, cats possibly were already kept in Europe prior to the Roman Empire, as they may have been present in Britain in the late Iron Age. [39] Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during the Age of Discovery, as they were carried on sailing ships to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms (see Ship's cat. 254] 223 Several ancient religions believed cats are exalted souls, companions or guides for humans, that are all-knowing but mute so they cannot influence decisions made by humans. In Japan, the maneki neko cat is a symbol of good fortune. [256] Although no species are sacred in Islam, cats are revered by Muslims. Some Western writers have stated Muhammad had a favorite cat, Muezza. [257] He is reported to have loved cats so much, he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it. 258] The story has no origin in early Muslim writers, and seems to confuse a story of a later Sufi saint, Ahmed ar-Rifa'i, centuries after Muhammad. [259] Freyja, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility in Norse mythology, is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by cats. [260] Superstitions and cat burning Many cultures have negative superstitions about cats. An example would be the belief that a black cat "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' familiars used to augment a witch's powers and skills. The killing of cats in Medieval Ypres, Belgium, is commemorated in the innocuous present-day Kattenstoet (cat parade. 261] In medieval France, cats would be burnt alive as a form of entertainment. According to Norman Davies, the assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally carbonized. 262] It was the custom to burn a basket, barrel, or sack full of live cats, which was hung from a tall mast in the midst of the bonfire; sometimes a fox was burned. The people collected the embers and ashes of the fire and took them home, believing that they brought good luck. The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands. In 1648 Louis XIV, crowned with a wreath of roses and carrying a bunch of roses in his hand, kindled the fire, danced at it and partook of the banquet afterwards in the town hall. But this was the last occasion when a monarch presided at the midsummer bonfire in Paris. At Metz midsummer fires were lighted with great pomp on the esplanade, and a dozen cats, enclosed in wicker cages, were burned alive in them, to the amusement of the people. Similarly at Gap, in the department of the Hautes-Alpes, cats used to be roasted over the midsummer bonfire. 263] According to a myth in many cultures, cats have multiple lives. In many countries, they are believed to have nine lives, but in Italy, Germany, Greece, Brazil and some Spanish-speaking regions, they are said to have seven lives, 264] 265] while in Turkish and Arabic traditions, the number of lives is six. [266] The myth is attributed to the natural suppleness and swiftness cats exhibit to escape life-threatening situations. Also lending credence to this myth is the fact that falling cats often land on their feet, using an instinctive righting reflex to twist their bodies around. Nonetheless, cats can still be injured or killed by a high fall. 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Retrieved 18 September 2012. ↑ "Cats Be. templatestyles src= Module:Citation/CS1. templatestyles> ↑ "The Supreme Cat Census. templatestyles src= Module:Citation/CS1. templatestyles> ↑ "About Pets. IFAH Europe. Retrieved 3 October 2014. ↑ Legay JM (1986. Sur une tentative d'estimation du nombre total de chats domestiques dans le monde. Comptes Rendus De l'Académie Des Sciences. Série III, Sciences De La Vie (in French. 303 (17) 709–12. PMID   3101986. INIST: 7950138. ↑ "Cats: most interesting facts about common domestic pets. templatestyles src= Module:Citation/CS1. templatestyles> ↑ "Study Traces Cat's Ancestry to Middle East. templatestyles src= Module:Citation/CS1. templatestyles> ↑ Stanley D. Gehrt; Seth P. Riley; Brian L. Cypher (12 March 2010. Urban Carnivores: Ecology, Conflict, and Conservation. JHU Press. ↑ Irene Rochlitz (17 April 2007. Springer Science & Business Media. ↑ 247. 0 247. 1 "Cats. Ohio Department of Health. 21 January 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2016. ↑ Muir, Hazel (8 April 2004. Ancient Remains Could Be Oldest Pet Cat. New Scientist. Retrieved 23 November 2007. ↑ Walton, Marsha (9 April 2004. Ancient Burial Looks Like Human and Pet Cat. CNN. ↑ "Gatos fueron domesticados en China hace 5. 300 años. La Nación (in Spanish. templatestyles src= Module:Citation/CS1. templatestyles> ↑ 254. 0 254. 1 254. 2 Mason, I. Evolution of Domesticated Animals. Prentice Hall Press. ISBN   0-582-46046-8. ↑ Veyne, Paul (2002) 1987. The Household and Its Freed Slaves. The Roman Empire. Arthur Goldhammer (Trans. 3rd ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard College. p. 81. ISBN   0-674-77771-9. ↑ Alan Pate (2008. Maneki Neko: Feline Fact & Fiction. Daruma Magazine. Amagasaki, Japan: Takeguchi Momoko. Archived from the original on 30 December 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2012. ↑ Geyer, Georgie Anne (2004. When Cats Reigned Like Kings: On the Trail of the Sacred Cats. Kansas City, Missouri: Andrews McMeel. ISBN   0-7407-4697-9. ↑ Minou Reeves (2000. Muhammad in Europe. New York University (NYU) Press. p. 52. ISBN   0-8147-7533-0. ↑ Al-Thahabi, Shamsuddin. "Biography of al-Rifai. سير أعلام النبلاء (in Arabic. Retrieved 11 November 2014. ↑ Faulkes, Anthony (1995. Edda. p. 24. ISBN   0-460-87616-3. ↑ "Are Black Cats Really Bad Luck? Hoax. SocialNewsDaily. Retrieved 19 December 2015. ↑ Davies, Norman (1996. Europe: a History. p. 543. ISBN   0-198-20171-0. ↑ Frazer, Sir James George. The Golden Bough, 1922. Online version. ↑ Nora Sugobono (7 March 2010. Las vidas del gato" in Spanish. El Comercio. Archived from the original on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2010. ↑ "Qual é a origem da lenda de que os gatos teriam sete vidas. Mundo Estranho. Editora Abril. Retrieved 15 November 2015. ↑ Tim Dowling (19 March 2010. Tall tails: Pet myths busted. UK. Retrieved 18 March 2010. ↑ ASPCA (30 June 2005. The ASPCA Warns About High-Rise Falls by Cats. New York. Retrieved 26 April 2012. External links Listen to this article (3 parts) info) This audio file was created from a revision of the " Cat " article dated 2007-05-13, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. Audio help.

Cats download full moon. Cats download full song. Thumbnail: It's a cult! Me: I don't even need to see the movie to know that this is true. Smart News Keeping you current Last month, a team unveiled a bronze statue honoring the feline, who launched on a suborbital mission in 1963 Félicette, a former stray who was sent into space by French researchers in 1963, now has a bronze statue in her honor at France's International Space University. (Public Domain) January 28, 2020 Félicette, the only cat to have ever survived a sojourn into space, is now being recognized for her extraterrestrial achievements in the form of a bronze statue at the International Space University in Strasbourg, France. The spacefaring feline was part of a 15-minute suborbital mission in 1963. Unveiled in December, the memorial is the culmination of a Kickstarter campaign launched in October 2017 by cosmic cat enthusiast Matthew Serge Guy. More than 1, 100 patrons donated 57, 000 to honor Félicette. “It's time for The Astrocat to get the memorial she rightly deserves, ” Guy wrote on the original campaign page. Félicette, a petite tuxedo kitty, wasnt the first non-human animal to leave our planets atmosphere. In their early bids for an eventual lunar landing, both the United States and the former USSR sent their own menageries of creatures into space, including a dog named Laika in 1957 and a chimpanzee called Ham in 1961. These efforts, using larger and larger creatures, were—though ethically hazy —intended as trial runs for humans, in part to study the effects of microgravity on mammalian bodies. Before Félicette, France had so far only sent rats to space. After researchers at the Centre d'Enseignement et de Recherches de Médecine Aéronautique (CERMA) recruited 14 cats into a rigorous training program, Félicette—a sweet-tempered former stray—was granted the golden ticket, Emily Petsko reported for Mental Floss in 2018. This bronze statue, designed by sculptor Gill Parker, depicts Félicette the cat perched atop planet Earth. ( Matthew Serge Guy, Kickstarter) That October, Félicette—then designated C341—was launched from a base in the Sahara Desert, reaching an altitude of about 100 miles above Earth. The trip was brief, just 15 minutes in total. But all the while, scientists kept close tabs on the kitty, monitoring her breathing and heart rate through a series of electrodes implanted throughout her body. Eventually, the capsule that contained Félicette detached from its rocket and parachuted safely back to the ground. A few months after her return, she was euthanized so that the scientific team could examine her brain. Despite Félicettes scientific contributions, this intrepid feline has been mostly erased from history, Weitering wrote for in 2017, when Guys Kickstarter campaign first debuted. Upon his death, Ham the chimpanzee was eulogized, and his partial remains sent for burial at the International Space Hall of Fame, and at least two monuments have been constructed in memory of Laika the dog. But Félicette had yet to receive a comparable commemoration at the time of Guys campaign launch. A series of postage stamps, intended to celebrate the cats contributions, actually mislabeled her as a male cat named Felix. Félicettes obscurity may be tied in part to the way early spaceflight has been recorded: primarily as a race between the USSR and the United States, leaving France and its astronauts, human and otherwise, as a secondary character. Unlike American or Soviet animals, “Félicette doesnt have a path to that larger history, ” space historian Robert Pearlman told Rae Paoletta at Gizmodo in 2017. But perhaps that will no longer be the case. Nearly six decades after her journey, Félicette is now immortalized in bronze. Her five-foot-tall statue, designed by sculptor Gill Parker, depicts her perched atop Earth, gazing up toward the skies she once traveled. The piece premiered on December 18, 2019, as a part of the 25th anniversary celebration of the International Space Universitys Master of Space Studies program. “Its crazy to think a video I put online almost two and a half years ago has resulted in this, ” Guy wrote in a Kickstarter update. “The internets an alright place sometimes. ”.

Im probably the only person who liked the movie. 4:31 The cat Is reading a Zack king magazine. We found a cat in our yard today and we fed it. Momo is the real cat of the house, no one messes with the Chairman. Cats download full free. 0:27 - 0:40 PLS, SONG NAME? 🙏😀🎵. It's really hard to describe the "experience" of this movie without phisically flinching. Level 1 Meeko is adorable. Super soft kitty qualities. level 1 Meeko and I share a birthday, how cute level 2 Same here! Happy birthday level 2 Add me to the list happy birthday to everybody else level 1 Hey just wanted to let you know salt lamps are highly toxic and dangerous to cats! Please keep Meeko safe: level 2 thanks for commenting, i didnt know and i have a huge lamp at home😰 level 2 None of our cats are interested in the lamp, but thank you for the concern, level 1 I thought it said 21 at first lol happy b day get her some sardines level 1 Aww, happy birthday, Meeko! I used to have a dog called Miko (derived from Meeko the Racoon in Pocahontas. She lived to be 16. I hope your kitty has a long life and good health, too! level 1 I member Meeko from the 6 Weeks and 6 months old posts level 1 Happy Birthday Meeko! Funnily enough, your comment reminded me that today is my baby kitties second birthday too! level 2 You should also get fifteen thousand upvotes! 😺 Pictures, videos, articles and questions featuring and about cats. Reddit Inc 2020. All rights reserved.

To be honest it didn't cost me that much. At first. But I severely underestimated how many cats would seek employment. I've yet to turn a profit, but I imagine that just like Amazon, if I continue to grow then I'll soon be worth billions on the public stock exchange. If you're at all unsatisfied with the services my company provides, please feel free to cat call our customer service at any time. We take concerns very seriously. 1-800-CAT-BUTT Edit: As a disclaimer, one thing I've learned after years of running this business. Cats like shiny things. You know, basic items such as silver, gold, and platinum. Cough hint cough. This is a live blog. Check back for updates. 4:07 pm: Fifth-worst point drop in last 12 months While this drop is jarring because it's come amid a rather placid rally in the market to new highs, it is not all that unusual. We've had several drops of this magnitude in the last 12 months. With the Dow ending down 603 points, this is the fifth-worst point drop in the past year. 4:01 pm: Dow ends the day down 600 points Buying did not return in the final hour as the Dow ended the day down 603 points on mounting coronavirus fears. The 2% drop was the worst one-day slide since August. The S&P 500 lost 1. 8. Apple fell 4. 4% on fears sales and production in China could be disrupted. One bright spot was Amazon, which still managed a gain of more than 7. The Dow and S&P 500 are now negative for the year because of Friday's decline. -Melloy 3:58 pm: Tony Dwyer says China stimulus could cause the market to bounce back Tony Dwyer, chief market strategist at Canaccord Genuity, warned investors against overreacting to a potential slowdown in China GDP due to the coronavirus outbreak. Dwyer said on "Closing Bell" that China would act aggressively to boost its economy once the outbreak was over. "If you get too negative based upon what the impact of this could be to GDP, you could get your face ripped off by a massive monetary stimulus plan globally to offset it. he said. "It's the world second largest economy, and you've got to know China is going to do some kind of fiscal policy to come out of it. — Pound 3:42 pm: CDC says risk to American public is low, Dow still down more than 620 points The Dow pared some of its losses as the CDC said speaking from the White House that the risk to American people is low. It is still down more than 620 points, however. — Stevens 3:31 pm: Dow falls 640, waiting on White House With 30 minutes of trading left, losses are accelerating with the Dow now down more than 640 points. President Donald Trump is expected to hold a public briefing on the coronavirus momentarily. — Stevens 3:18 pm: Dow plummets more than 600 points The Dow fell to the session low in the final 45 minutes of trading. Traders aren't risking being long into the weekend with new coronavirus developments possible. — Stevens 3:10 pm: Coronavirus names fall ahead of the close Stocks with a large amount of exposure to the coronavirus epidemic accelerated losses on Friday, dragging down the major averages. American Airlines, Delta and United all suspended flights to and from China, sending their stocks down 3. 5% 2. 4% and 3. 7% respectively. Casino companies that operate in Macau were also in the red, with Las Vegas Sands falling 1. 9% MGM Resorts dropping 1. 5% and Wynn Resorts down 0. 5. Carnival fell 2. 8% Norwegian Cruise Line fell 2. 2% and Royal Caribbean fell 2% with less than an hour left of trading. – Fitzgerald 2:58 pm: Final hour of trading: Stocks tank to end January With roughly one hour left of trading let in Friday's session, the major averages were headed for steep losses that are wiping out the Dow and S&P 500's gains for the month. The Dow is down more than 550 points, or nearly 2. The S&P 500 has lost more than 1. The Dow was headed for its worst day since August while the S&P 500 was on pace to post its biggest one-day fall since October. — Imbert 2:56 pm: Oil's worst month since May Oil fell 1. 1% on Friday, capping off a week that saw prices slide nearly 5. It was U. S. West Texas Intermediate 's fourth straight week of losses, and Friday was oil's 8th negative session in 9. For the month WTI posted a drop of 15. 5. its worst month since May. and it's now back in bear market territory. The coronavirus outbreak is the primary factor weighing on prices, as traders fear that a virus-induced economic slowdown could hit oil demand. — Stevens 2:16 pm: Fifth-biggest point drop on the Dow in last 12 months Friday's decline in the Dow now marks the fifth biggest point drop in the past year. The 30-stock index is last down 548 points, on pace for its worst day since August. — Li 1:49 pm: VIX breaks above 19 for first time since October The Cboe Market Volatility Index rose 3. 6 points on Friday as stocks sold off. The index, often called the market's "fear gauge. measures the implied future volatility expected by options traders. Volatility was abnormally low during most of the final quarter of 2019 as the market rose. The index is now above 19 points for the first time since Oct. 10. — Pound 1:42 pm: Dow plummets more than 550 points, heads for worst day since August The Dow Jones Industrial Average was down about 2% in afternoon trading, or about 570 points, as coronavirus fears keep battering stocks. If the 30-stock average doesn't regain some of these losses, it will be its worst daily performance since August. — Imbert 1:20 pm: White House reportedly weighing outright China travel ban The Washington Post confirmed an earlier CNBC report that the White House could announce even tighter travel restrictions to and from China, including an outright ban. The Post, citing people familiar with the discussions, said the Trump administration could make such an announcement as soon as Friday afternoon in an effort to formalize its stance. Equities held near session lows around the report with the Dow down more than 500 points. — Franck 12:53 pm: Bad day and week The sell-off Friday was worsening and headed for some notable milestones: Worst day for Dow and S&P 500 since October 2. Dow and S&P 500 both dip negative for January. Worst week for both Dow and S&P 500 in 6 months (since week ending August 2. Dow headed for lowest close since December 18, S&P since December 30. — Schacknow 12:46 pm: Market off lows slightly New York Daily News updated its earlier reports to show that the New York City's first coronavirus case is not confirmed. Dow rose slightly from its lows. — Li 12:43 pm: Session lows on reports New York City has first coronavirus case The major averages hit their lows of the day as the New York Daily News reported New York City's first coronavirus case. CNBC could not confirm the report. — Li 12:37 pm: Dow tanks 500 points as coronavirus fears deepen The Dow hit its session low, now down more than 500 points, as the concerns on the fast-spreading coronavirus escalated. The S&P 500 also turned red on the month, last down 1. 6. — Li 12:03 pm: Markets at midday: Stocks plunge as airlines curb US-China flights, S&P 500 down 1% Stocks were down sharply in midday trading, with the S&P 500 and Dow dropping more than 1% each. The sell-off accelerated in midmorning after Delta and American Airlines announced they had suspended flights between China and the U. due to the coronavirus. The Dow also erased its gains for the month. Delta and American shares both fell more than 2. Wynn Resorts and Las Vegas Sands dropped more than 1% each. — Imbert 12:02 pm: Longtime bull Tom Lee advises against buying this dip This week's market sell-off has sent one of the Wall Street's biggest optimists heading in the other direction, at least for now. Perennial bull Tom Lee, head of research at Fundstrat Global Advisors, told clients that he doesn't advise buying this dip, which has seen the market erase about all of its January gains. Lee said that "this does not feel like a reflexive 2% 3% drawdown that 'needs to be bought' but rather, this feels like the start of a broader correction. Hence, the character of the market is changing from the relentless buying since October, to one where we need to 'wait for the initial bottom' before becoming more aggressive. Lee estimates the selling will stop somewhere between the S&P 500's 100- and 200-day moving averages, respectively 3, 111 and 3, 011. Those two points represent respective drawdowns of 5% and 8% from Thursday's close. Still, Lee said he remains bullish for the full year because of "economic tailwinds" that ultimately will push the market higher. – Cox 12 pm: Gold eyes its best month in five as investors rush for safe haven during virus uncertainty Gold prices have gained about 4% in January and are headed for its best month in five as concerns about an economic slowdown from the Chinese coronavirus pushed investors into the safe haven asset. The World Health Organization on Thursday declared the coronavirus outbreak a global emergency, causing Wall Street firms like Goldman Sachs to downgrade this quarter's growth forecast. Spot gold rose 0. 65% to 1, 584. 1 per ounce on Friday. — Fitzgerald 11:43 am: Short seller Carson Block Takes Aim at Luckin China-based Luckin Coffee plunged 14% in midday trading after Muddy Waters Research tweeted it's betting against the stock in light of what it described as fraud and a "fundamentally broken business. Noted short seller Carson Block, founder and manager of Muddy Waters, is known for turning profits by leveraging his aptitude for detecting underhanded business practices, especially in China. His firm rose to fame in 2011 after Muddy Waters accused Chinese forestry company Sino-Forest of fraud. The company filed for bankruptcy the following year. — Franck 11:34 am: Dow technical breakdown The Dow crossed below its 50-day moving average, a technical level closely watched by traders, for the first time since Oct. 10th. — Francolla Source: FactSet 11:07 am: Dow now down 400 points The Dow is now down 400 points as investors start to worry about the financial impact of the coronavirus if travel to China is severely restricted in the first quarter. Apple is down more than 2. Melloy 10:53 am: Coronavirus-related names tank as airlines cancel flights Stocks with exposure to China travel continued to fall on Friday as the deadly coronavirus infection and death toll rise. Airlines got hammered after Delta and America Airlines said they are suspended all flights between the U. and China. Shares of Delta are down 1. 5% Friday and down nearly 4% for the month. American Airlines dropped 3% and is down more than 6% this month and United Airlines ticked 2. 4% lower, continuing its near 14% drop since the start of January. Southwest fell 1. 4. Casino companies that operate in Macao also fell on Friday. Las Vegas Sands fell 2% MGM Resorts ticked 1. 6% lower and Wynn Resorts dropped 1. The companies are down 6% 7. 5% and 10% respectively this month. Cruise lines also got hammered with Carnival down 1. 4% Norwegian Cruise Lines down 1. 7% and Royal Caribbean Cruises down 1. 3. Cruise lines are continuing their declines for the month down 13% 7% and 11% respectively, this month. – Fitzgerald 10:47 am: Market hits session lows as airlines suspend service to China The Dow fell to its low for the day after American Airlines joined Delta in suspending all U. -China flights due to the coronavirus. -Melloy 10:18 am: Dow turns red for January As the losses on Friday mount, the Dow has turned negative for January. With it down more than 1. 1% the average is now slightly in the red for the month. The S&P 500 is still up 0. 8% for the month and year. Melloy 10:10 am: IBM shares jump on CEO shuffle Shares of IBM jumped more than 4% after the computer software company announced CEO Ginni Rometty will step down in April. Rometty, who has served at the helm of the company since 2012, will be replaced by Arvind Krishna. Shares of IBM are down more than 22% since Rometty became CEO; however, the company shifted the focus of its business to could services in that time. Krishna, 57, is one of IBM's top executives, having joined the company in 1990. —Fitzgerald 10:08 am: Sell-off accelerating in morning trading The Dow is now down 300 points, with Chevron and Exxon Mobil leading the decline in the 30-stock average. Apple dropped 2% weighing on the broad market. — Li 10:03 am: Consumer sentiment comes in slightly better than expected January's consumer sentiment data from the University of Michigan's Surveys of Consumers were stronger than estimated. The number came in at 99. 8, up from 99. 3 in December and topping Dow Jones' expectations of 99. 1. Stocks remained lower after the data release. — Li 9:54 am: Lots of red on the board Just five of the 30 Dow members are higher with IBM the highlight, up nearly 4. Chevron is the worst performer, down more than 3. Decliners are outpacing advancers on the Big Board by 2. 5-to-1. — Melloy 9:50 am: 10-year Treasury yield on track for its biggest monthly drop since August The yield on the benchmark 10-year Treasury note fell to about 1. 534% Friday, bringing its month-to-date decline to nearly 40 basis points, on pace for its biggest monthly plunge in five months. The 10-year yield also dipped below the three-month Treasury rate of 1. 552% inverting a key part of the yield curve. This part of the yield curve is closely watched by the Federal Reserve for signs of an economic downturn. — Li 9:38 am: Goldman says coronavirus could dent growth this quarter The Chinese coronavirus that has infected about 10, 000 people and killed more than 200 people worldwide, is expected to dent economic growth this quarter, according to Goldman Sachs. The investment bank said the spreading virus could take 0. 4% out of the annualized growth rate in the first quarter. The virus, which the World Health Organization declared a global emergency on Thursday, is causing consumers to stay inside, businesses to close shops, and airlines to cancel flights. Overall, Goldman said it expects the virus to result in "only a small net drag" on U. full-year 2020 growth of roughly 0. 05 percentage points. — Fitzgerald 9:33 am: Dow drops at open, barely higher for January The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped about 200 points shortly after the open Friday and the S&P 500 lost 0. The Dow is up just 0. 4% for January, while the S&P 500 is up 1. The Nasdaq Composite Index was the bright spot, clinging to the flat-line on Friday because of a 9% surge in Amazon, which brought its market value back above 1 trillion. Melloy 9:23 am: Coronavirus projected to hit China economy even harder The coronavirus pandemic could hit the already slowing China economy even harder, according to Citigroup. The firm cut its GDP estimate for this year, now expecting a growth rate of 5. 5% compared to the previous outlook for 5. "We expect the negative economic impact of 2019-nCoV to concentrate in the near term, before the virus is contained and the government starts to repair the economy. economist Xiangrong Yu said. GDP is projected to dip as low as 4. 8% in the first quarter then rebound as the damage from the virus ebbs. —Cox 9:05 am: Biggest analyst calls of day Evercore ISI downgraded World Wrestling Entertainment to in line from outperform. JPMorgan initiated Uber as overweight. (stock up 0. 7% Guggenheim upgraded PayPal to buy from neutral. Baird downgraded Amgen to underperform to neutral. (stock down 2. 7% Wells Fargo downgraded Sherwin-Williams to equal weight from overweight. Jefferies upgraded Deckers to buy from hold. (stock up 5% CNBC Pro subscribers can read more here. —Bloom 9:02 am: WWE stock takes a beating Shares of Word Wrestling Entertainment fell about 25% in premarket trading after the company announced that co-Presidents George Barrios and Michelle Wilson will immediately leave the company and vacate their board seats. Additionally, WWE lowered its full year 2019 forecast to the bottom of the range of its previous guidance, below Wall Street's consensus according to FactSet. — Sheetz 8:58 am: Colgate-Palmolive rises after solid earnings Shares of Colgate-Palmolive rose nearly 5% in premarket trading after the company reported fourth-quarter earnings in-line with expectations, with revenue slightly above as well, according to FactSet. The consumer products company also forecast 2020 revenue would growth between 4% and 6% above the 3. 8% pace analysts expected. —Sheetz 8:39 am: Canaccord says market is 'uncomfortably neutral' Canaccord Genuity writes that the U. equity market is "uncomfortably neutral: It's caught between positives like stronger fourth-quarter earnings and an easy Fed in tandem with negatives like an unknown macro impact from the coronavirus and a surge in valuations over the last month. Chief Market Strategist Tony Dwyer writes the opposing forces make it hard to be too bearish and too bullish, forcing investors into a charged equilibrium. The brokerage downgraded its market view to neutral on Jan. 20 because of "the overbought conditions and excessive optimism. — Franck 8:35 am: Caterpillar shares fall after a revenue miss, warning of 'global economic uncertainty' 8:28 am: Amazon headed back to the 1 trillion club Amazon shares surged more than 10% in the premarket on the back of quarterly numbers that blew past analyst expectations. The company posted a profit of 6. 47 per share on revenue of 87. 44 billion. Analysts polled by Refinitiv expected earnings per share of 4. 03 on revenue of 86. 02 billion. Revenue from the cloud business were a key driver for Amazon. "AMZN mgmt checked all the boxes with its Q4'19 EPS report. said UBS analyst Eric Sheridan. "In addition, against that backdrop, AMZN mgmt in no way left investors with the view that their global agenda to drive better performance for platform partners … still has a long runway ahead. Friday's surge would bring Amazon's market cap back above 1 trillion, based on the share count from the company's October 10-Q filing. Alphabet, Microsoft and Apple also have market caps of more than 1 trillion. — Imbert 8:24 am: Dow set to drop more than 100 points on coronavirus fears, Caterpillar warning U. stocks were headed for a mixed open on the last day of January as worries over the coronavirus lingered while Caterpillar raised a red flag about the global economy. Dow Jones Industrial Average futures pointed to a drop or more than 100 points at the open. Chinese authorities said the number of coronavirus deaths has risen above 200 while more than 9, 000 cases have been confirmed. Caterpillar also contributed to the losses in Dow futures after its CEO warned about "global economic uncertainty" see below. Amazon shares surged more than 10% however, to curb some of those losses. In fact, those gains pushed the Nasdaq 100's implied open higher. — Imbert —With reporting by Michael Sheetz, Michael Bloom, Jeff Cox, John Melloy, Maggie Fitzgerald, Gina Francolla, Peter Schacknow, Jesse Pound, Pippa Stevens.

Similar story happened to me. My neighbor moved here with two cats. Then, she got two more, and a dog. I started pet sitting, and her first cat started wanting to wander the neighborhood, because he hated all the other pets. She let him, and then, he would start coming to my house when he saw me outside. Eventually, he refused to leave my front porch. I didn't feed him or bring him inside, but he hung around anyways. She forced him inside one night during a bad storm and he growled and hissed at anything that moved. She let him back out and he never went near her or her family again. She moved, and just casually dropped the day before she left she wasn't bringing him with her. So, I asked for his vet records and now he's mine.

No one: Not a single soul: Furries: It's free real estate. You know how hard this must've been my cat won't even respond to his name 😂😂. The level is so hard. Cats download for android. 3:50 cutee. Cats Download full article on maxi. Level 1 If I hide under your stairs will you take me in? level 2 Hmmm take you in? or call 911 thinking you are a thief level 2 Are you a tiny redhead with green eyes and a nice tail? level 1 I cant take it. Oh man. The laying in the field picture is killing me. level 2 Thats my backyard. Hes indoor/outdoor, and wears a neon nightlight on his collar so I can find him in the dark. level 2 This is so so wholesome ❤️ level 1 This is fucking wholesome level 2 He knows I saved him, and that hes saved me too level 1 As the beard grows, the cat grows. level 2 Facts! But the cat came first. Im just trying to get my mane to lion status like Leo level 2 Great nother cat sub I follow Pictures, videos, articles and questions featuring and about cats. Reddit Inc 2020. All rights reserved.

Cats movie full movie download. Cats download full hd. Destruction lvl.100000 I'll comeback for my comment after 10years lol😂👌🌙. Domestic cat Various types of domestic cat Conservation status Domesticated Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Felidae Subfamily: Felinae Genus: Felis Species: F. catus [1] Binomial name Felis catus [1] Linnaeus, 1758 [2] Synonyms F. catus domesticus Erxleben, 1777 [3] F. angorensis Gmelin, 1788 F. vulgaris Fischer, 1829 The cat ( Felis catus) is a small carnivorous mammal. [1] 2] It is the only domesticated species in the family Felidae and often referred to as the domestic cat to distinguish it from wild members of the family. [4] The cat is either a house cat, a farm cat or a feral cat; latter ranges freely and avoids human contact. [5] Domestic cats are valued by humans for companionship and for their ability to hunt rodents. About 60 cat breeds are recognized by various cat registries. [6] The cat is similar in anatomy to the other felid species, has a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp teeth and retractable claws adapted to killing small prey. Its night vision and sense of smell are well developed. Cat communication includes vocalizations like meowing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting as well as cat-specific body language. It is a solitary hunter, but a social species. It can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small mammals. It is a predator that is most active at dawn and dusk. [7] It secretes and perceives pheromones. [8] Female domestic cats can have kittens from spring to late autumn, with litter sizes ranging from two to five kittens. [9] Domestic cats are bred and shown as registered pedigreed cats, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering, as well as abandonment of pets, resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, contributing to the extinction of entire bird species, and evoking population control. [10] It was long thought that cat domestication was initiated in Egypt, because cats in ancient Egypt were venerated since around 3100 BC. [11] 12] However, the earliest indication for the taming of an African wildcat ( F. lybica) was found in Cyprus, where a cat skeleton was excavated close by a human Neolithic grave dating to around 7500 BC. [13] African wildcats were probably first domesticated in the Near East. [14] As of 2017, the domestic cat was the second-most popular pet in the United States by number of pets owned, after freshwater fish, 15] with 95 million cats owned. [16] 17] In the United Kingdom, around 7. 3 million cats lived in more than 4. 8 million households as of 2019. [18] Etymology and naming The origin of the English word 'cat' Old English catt, is thought to be the Late Latin word cattus, which was first used at the beginning of the 6th century. [19] It was suggested that the word 'cattus' is derived from an Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau, tomcat" or its feminine form suffixed with -t. [20] The Late Latin word is also thought to be derived from Afro-Asiatic languages. [21] The Nubian word kaddîska "wildcat" and Nobiin kadīs are possible sources or cognates. [22] The Nubian word may be a loan from Arabic قَطّ‎ qaṭṭ ~ قِطّ qiṭṭ. It is "equally likely that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic. 23] The word may be derived from Germanic and Northern European languages, and ultimately be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gáđfi, female stoat. and Hungarian hölgy, stoat" from Proto-Uralic *käďwä, female (of a furred animal. 24] The English puss, extended as pussy and pussycat, is attested from the 16th century and may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian pus, pusekatt. Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and Irish puisín or puiscín. The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply arisen from a sound used to attract a cat. [25] 26] A male cat is called a tom or tomcat [27] or a gib, 28] if neutered) An unspayed female is called a queen, 29] especially in a cat-breeding context. A juvenile cat is referred to as a kitten. In Early Modern English, the word kitten was interchangeable with the now-obsolete word catling. [30] A group of cats can be referred to as a clowder or a glaring. [31] Taxonomy The scientific name Felis catus was proposed by Carl Linnaeus in 1758 for a domestic cat. [1] 2] Felis catus domesticus was proposed by Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben in 1777. [3] Felis daemon proposed by Konstantin Alekseevich Satunin in 1904 was a black cat from the Transcaucasus, later identified as a domestic cat. [32] 33] In 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature ruled that the domestic cat is a distinct species, namely Felis catus. [34] 35] In 2007, it was considered a subspecies of the European wildcat, F. silvestris catus, following results of phylogenetic research. [36] 37] In 2017, the IUCN Cat Classification Taskforce followed the recommendation of the ICZN in regarding the domestic cat as a distinct species, Felis catus. [38] Evolution Skulls of a wildcat (top left) a housecat (top right) and a hybrid between the two (bottom centre) The domestic cat is a member of the Felidae, a family that had a common ancestor about 10–15 million years ago. [39] The genus Felis diverged from the Felidae around 6–7 million years ago. [40] Results of phylogenetic research confirm that the wild Felis species evolved through sympatric or parapatric speciation, whereas the domestic cat evolved through artificial selection. [41] The domesticated cat and its closest wild ancestor are both diploid organisms that possess 38 chromosomes [42] and roughly 20, 000 genes. [43] The leopard cat ( Prionailurus bengalensis) was tamed independently in China around 5500 BC. This line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domestic cat populations of today. [44] Domestication A cat eating a fish under a chair, a mural in an Egyptian tomb dating to the 15th century BC The earliest known indication for a tamed African wildcat was excavated close by a human grave in Shillourokambos, southern Cyprus, dating to about 9, 200 to 9, 500 years before present. As there is no evidence of native mammalian fauna on Cyprus, the inhabitants of this Neolithic village most likely brought the cat and other wild mammals to the island from the Middle Eastern mainland. [13] Scientists therefore assume that African wildcats were attracted to early human settlements in the Fertile Crescent by rodents, in particular the house mouse ( Mus musculus) and were tamed by Neolithic farmers. This commensal relationship between early farmers and tamed cats lasted thousands of years. As agricultural practices spread, so did tame and domesticated cats. [14] 6] Wildcats of Egypt contributed to the maternal gene pool of the domestic cat at a later time. [45] The earliest known evidence for the occurrence of the domestic cat in Greece dates to around 1200 BC. Greek, Phoenician, Carthaginian and Etruscan traders introduced domestic cats to southern Europe. [46] During the Roman Empire they were introduced to Corsica and Sardinia before the beginning of the 1st millennium. [47] By the 5th century BC, they were familiar animals around settlements in Magna Graecia and Etruria. [48] By the end of the Roman Empire in the 5th century, the Egyptian domestic cat lineage had arrived in a Baltic Sea port in northern Germany. [45] During domestication, cats have undergone only minor changes in anatomy and behavior, and they are still capable of surviving in the wild. Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have preadapted them for domestication as pets. These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence. Captive Leopardus cats may also display affectionate behavior toward humans, but were not domesticated. [49] House cats often mate with feral cats, 50] producing hybrids such as the Kellas cat in Scotland. [51] Hybridisation between domestic and other Felinae species is also possible. [52] Development of cat breeds started in the mid 19th century. [53] An analysis of the domestic cat genome revealed that the ancestral wildcat genome was significantly altered in the process of domestication as specific mutations were selected to develop cat breeds. [54] Most breeds are founded on random-bred domestic cats. Genetic diversity of these breeds varies between regions, and is lowest in purebred populations, which show more than 20 deleterious genetic disorders. [55] Characteristics Diagram of the general anatomy of a male domestic cat Size The domestic cat has a smaller skull and shorter bones than the European wildcat. [56] It averages about 46 cm (18 in) in head-to-body length and 23–25 cm (9. 1–9. 8 in) in height, with about 30 cm (12 in) long tails. Males are larger than females. [57] Adult domestic cats typically weigh between 4 and 5 kg (8. 8 and 11. 0 lb. 41] Skeleton Cats have seven cervical vertebrae (as do most mammals) 13 thoracic vertebrae (humans have 12) seven lumbar vertebrae (humans have five) three sacral vertebrae (as do most mammals, but humans have five) and a variable number of caudal vertebrae in the tail (humans have only vestigial caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal coccyx. 58] 11 The extra lumbar and thoracic vertebrae account for the cat's spinal mobility and flexibility. Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the pelvis. [58] 16 Unlike human arms, cat forelimbs are attached to the shoulder by free-floating clavicle bones which allow them to pass their body through any space into which they can fit their head. [59] Skull The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful specialized jaw. [60] 35 Within the jaw, cats have teeth adapted for killing prey and tearing meat. When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teeth, inserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cord, causing irreversible paralysis and death. [61] Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth relative to the size of their jaw, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae. [61] The premolar and first molar together compose the carnassial pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors. These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication. [60] 37 Although cats tend to have better teeth than most humans, with decay generally less likely because of a thicker protective layer of enamel, a less damaging saliva, less retention of food particles between teeth, and a diet mostly devoid of sugar, they are nonetheless subject to occasional tooth loss and infection. [62] Ambulation The cat is digitigrade. It walks on the toes, with the bones of the feet making up the lower part of the visible leg. [63] Unlike most mammals, it uses a "pacing" gait and moves both legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. It registers directly by placing each hind paw close to the track of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks. This also provides sure footing for hind paws when navigating rough terrain. As it speeds up walking to trotting, its gait changes to a "diagonal" gait: the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously. [64] Claws Cats have protractable and retractable claws. [65] In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and fur around the paw's toe pads. This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey. The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet. [66] Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws. They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing, kneading, or for extra traction on soft surfaces. Cats shed the outside layer of their claw sheaths when scratching rough surfaces. [67] Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws. The dewclaw is proximal to the other claws. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger. This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping. Some cat breeds are prone to having extra digits ( polydactyly. 68] Polydactylous cats occur along North America's northeast coast and in Great Britain. [69] Senses Vision Cats have excellent night vision and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision. [60] 43 This is partly the result of cat eyes having a tapetum lucidum, which reflects any light that passes through the retina back into the eye, thereby increasing the eye's sensitivity to dim light. [70] Large pupils are an adaptation to dim light. The domestic cat has slit pupils, which allow it to focus bright light without chromatic aberration. [71] At low light, a cat's pupils expand to cover most of the exposed surface of its eyes. [72] However, the domestic cat has rather poor color vision and only two types of cone cells, optimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish green; its ability to distinguish between red and green is limited. [73] A response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the rod cells might be due to a third type of cone. However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true trichromatic vision. [74] Hearing The domestic cat's hearing is most acute in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz. [75] It can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies ranging from 55 Hz to 79, 000 Hz. It can hear a range of 10. 5  octaves, while humans and dogs can hear ranges of about 9 octaves. [76] 77] Its hearing sensitivity is enhanced by its large movable outer ears, the pinnae, which amplify sounds and help detect the location of a noise. It can detect ultrasound, which enables it to detect ultrasonic calls made by rodent prey. [78] 79] Smell Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed olfactory bulb and a large surface of olfactory mucosa, about 5. 8 cm 2 (0. 90 in 2) in area, which is about twice that of humans. [80] Cats and many other animals have a Jacobson's organ in their mouths that is used in the behavioral process of flehmening. It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot. Cats are sensitive to pheromones such as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol, 81] which they use to communicate through urine spraying and marking with scent glands. [82] Many cats also respond strongly to plants that contain nepetalactone, especially catnip, as they can detect that substance at less than one part per billion. [83] About 70–80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone. [84] This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine ( Actinidia polygama) and the herb valerian; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors. [85] Taste Cats have relatively few taste buds compared to humans (470 or so versus more than 9, 000 on the human tongue. 86] Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste sweetness. [87] Their taste buds instead respond to acids, amino acids like protein, and bitter tastes. [88] Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 C (100 F) which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated (which would signal to the cat that the "prey" item is long dead and therefore possibly toxic or decomposing. 86] The whiskers of a cat are highly sensitive to touch. Whiskers To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable whiskers (vibrissae) over their body, especially their faces. These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage. [60] 47 Balance Comparison of cat righting reflexes in gravity vis-à-vis zero gravity Most breeds of cat have a noted fondness for sitting in high places, or perching. A higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch. Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory. A cat falling from heights of up to 3 meters can right itself and land on its paws. [89] During a fall from a high place, a cat reflexively twists its body and rights itself to land on its feet using its acute sense of balance and flexibility. This reflex is known as the cat righting reflex. [90] An individual cat always rights itself in the same way during a fall, provided it has sufficient time to do so. The height required for this to occur is around 90 cm (3. 0 ft. 91] Cats without a tail also have this reflex. [92] Several explanations have been proposed for this phenomenon since the late 19th century: Cats rely on conservation of angular momentum. [93] The rotation angle of the front body is larger than that of the rear body. [94] The dynamics of the falling cat have been explained using the Udwadia–Kalaba equation. [95] Behavior Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night. [96] Domestic cats spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their homes, but can range many hundreds of meters from this central point. They establish territories that vary considerably in size, in one study ranging from 7 to 28 hectares (17–69 acres. 97] The timing of cats' activity is quite flexible and varied, which means house cats may be more active in the morning and evening, as a response to greater human activity at these times. [98] Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older. The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average. Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours. The term "cat nap" for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep (lightly) for a brief period. While asleep, cats experience short periods of rapid eye movement sleep often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are dreaming. [99] Sociability The social behavior of the domestic cat ranges from widely dispersed individuals to feral cat colonies that gather around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females. [100] 101] Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others. [102] Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories. These territories are marked by urine spraying, by rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation. [82] Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts. Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and growling and, if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks. Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a pack mentality and always hunt alone. [103] However, some pet cats are poorly socialized. In particular, older cats show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression. [104] Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals. Ethologically, the human keeper of a cat functions as a sort of surrogate for the cat's mother. [105] Adult cats live their lives in a kind of extended kittenhood, a form of behavioral neoteny. Their high-pitched sounds may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly difficult for humans to ignore. [106] Domestic cats' scent rubbing behavior towards humans or other cats is thought to be a feline means for social bonding. [107] Communication Domestic cats use many vocalizations for communication, including purring, trilling, hissing, growling/snarling, grunting, and several different forms of meowing. [7] Their body language, including position of ears and tail, relaxation of the whole body, and kneading of the paws, are all indicators of mood. The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats. A raised tail indicates a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility. Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group's social hierarchy, with dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate ones. [108] Feral cats are generally silent. [109] 208 Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed by social grooming, which is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head. [101] Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and nursing kittens. Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed, 110] 111] or eating. The mechanism by which cats purr is elusive. The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound. [112] Grooming The hooked papillae on a cat's tongue act like a hairbrush to help clean and detangle fur. A tabby housecat uses its brush-like tongue to groom itself, licking its fur to straighten it. Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coats to keep them clean. [113] The cat's tongue has backwards-facing spines about 500  μm long, which are called papillae. These contain keratin which makes them rigid [114] so the papillae act like a hairbrush. Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate hairballs of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming. These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2–3 cm (0. 8–1. 2 in) long. Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through the gut, as well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush. [113] Fighting A domestic cat's arched back, raised fur and an open-mouthed hiss are signs of aggression Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females. [115] Among feral cats, the most common reason for cat fighting is competition between two males to mate with a female. In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male. [116] Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home. [115] Female cats also fight over territory or to defend their kittens. Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to sex hormones. [117] When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting. [118] Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward. They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent. Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites. Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs. [119] Serious damage is rare, as the fights are usually short in duration, with the loser running away with little more than a few scratches to the face and ears. However, fights for mating rights are typically more severe and injuries may include deep puncture wounds and lacerations. Normally, serious injuries from fighting are limited to infections of scratches and bites, though these can occasionally kill cats if untreated. In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus. [120] Sexually active males are usually involved in many fights during their lives, and often have decidedly battered faces with obvious scars and cuts to their ears and nose. [121] Hunting and feeding A domestic cat with its prey The shape and structure of cats' cheeks is insufficient to suck. They lap with the tongue to draw liquid upwards into their mouths. Lapping at a rate of four times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly retracts it like a corkscrew, drawing water upwards. [122] 123] Free-fed feral cats and house cats consume several small meals in a day. The frequency and size of meals varies between individuals. They select food based on its temperature, smell and texture; they dislike chilled foods and respond most strongly to moist foods rich in amino acids, which are similar to meat. Cats reject novel flavors (a response termed neophobia) and learn quickly to avoid foods that have tasted unpleasant in the past. [103] 124] They also avoid sweet food and milk. Most adult cats are lactose intolerant; the sugar in milk is not easily digested and may cause soft stools or diarrhea. [125] Some also develop odd eating habits and like to eat or chew on things like wool, plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal. This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten. [126] Cats hunt small prey, primarily birds and rodents. [127] and are often used as a form of pest control. [128] 129] Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or waiting in ambush until an animal comes close enough to be captured. [130] The strategy used depends on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds. [131] 153 Domestic cats are a major predator of wildlife in the United States, killing an estimated 1. 4 to 3. 7 billion birds and 6. 9 to 20. 7 billion mammals annually. [132] Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of house sparrow mortality is linked to the domestic cat. [133] In the recovery of ringed robins ( Erithacus rubecula) and dunnocks ( Prunella modularis) 31% of deaths were a result of cat predation. [134] In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as coyotes which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as opossums and raccoons on bird numbers and variety. [135] A cat playing with a mouse. Cats play with their prey to weaken or exhaust it before killing it. Perhaps the best known element of cats' hunting behavior, which is commonly misunderstood and often appals cat owners because it looks like torture, is that cats often appear to "play" with prey by releasing it after capture. This cat and mouse behavior is due to an instinctive imperative to ensure that the prey is weak enough to be killed without endangering the cat. [136] Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians. One explanation is that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to the dominance hierarchy, in which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top. [137] Another explanation is that they attempt to teach their guardians to hunt or to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten. 138] This hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement in raising kittens. [131] 153 Impact on birds On islands, birds can contribute as much as 60% of a cat's diet. [139] In nearly all cases, however, the cat cannot be identified as the sole cause for reducing the numbers of island birds, and in some instances, eradication of cats has caused a "mesopredator release" effect; 140] where the suppression of top carnivores creates an abundance of smaller predators that cause a severe decline in their shared prey. Domestic cats are, however, known to be a contributing factor to the decline of many species, a factor that has ultimately led, in some cases, to extinction. The South Island piopio, Chatham rail, 134] and the New Zealand merganser [141] are a few from a long list, with the most extreme case being the flightless Lyall's wren, which was driven to extinction only a few years after its discovery. [142] 143] Play Play fight between kittens, age 14 weeks Domestic cats, especially young kittens, are known for their love of play. This behavior mimics hunting and is important in helping kittens learn to stalk, capture, and kill prey. [144] Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans. This behavior may be a way for cats to practice the skills needed for real combat, and might also reduce any fear they associate with launching attacks on other animals. [145] Cats also tend to play with toys more when they are hungry. [146] Owing to the close similarity between play and hunting, cats prefer to play with objects that resemble prey, such as small furry toys that move rapidly, but rapidly lose interest. They become habituated to a toy they have played with before. [147] String is often used as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can become caught at the base of the cat's tongue and then move into the intestines, a medical emergency which can cause serious illness, even death. [148] Owing to the risks posed by cats eating string, it is sometimes replaced with a laser pointer 's dot, which cats may chase. [149] Reproduction When cats mate, the tomcat (male) bites the scruff of the female's neck as she assumes a position conducive to mating known as lordosis behavior. Radiography of a pregnant cat. The skeletons of two fetuses are visible on the left and right of the uterus. Female cats called queens are polyestrous with several estrus cycles during a year, lasting usually 21 days. They are usually ready to mate between early February and August. [150] Several males called tomcat are attracted to a female in heat. They fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate. At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate. The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120–150 backwards-pointing penile spines, which are about 1 mm (0. 039 in) long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which acts to induce ovulation. This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second (or more) mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception. [151] After mating, the female cleans her vulva thoroughly. If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female attacks him. After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat. [152] Because ovulation is not always triggered by a single mating, females may not be impregnated by the first male with which they mate. [153] Furthermore, cats are superfecund; that is, a female may mate with more than one male when she is in heat, with the result that different kittens in a litter may have different fathers. [152] The morula forms 124 hours after conception. At 148 hours, early blastocysts form. At 10–12 days, implantation occurs. [154] The gestation of queens lasts between 64 and 67 days, with an average of 65 days. [150] 155] Data on reproductive capacity of more than 2, 300 free-ranging queens were collected during a study between May 1998 and October 2000. They had one to six kittens per litter, with an average of three kittens. They produced a mean of 1. 4 litters per year, but a maximum of three litters in a year. Of 169 kittens, 127 died before they were six months old due to a trauma caused in most cases by dog attacks and road accidents. [9] The first litter is usually smaller than subsequent litters. Kittens are weaned between six and seven weeks of age. Queens normally reach sexual maturity at 5–10 months, and males at 5–7 months. This varies depending on breed. [152] Kittens reach puberty at the age of 9–10 months. [150] Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks of age, when they are ready to leave their mother. [156] They can be surgically sterilized (spayed or castrated) as early as seven weeks to limit unwanted reproduction. [157] This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, territory marking (spraying urine) in males and yowling (calling) in females. Traditionally, this surgery was performed at around six to nine months of age, but it is increasingly being performed before puberty, at about three to six months. [158] In the United States, about 80% of household cats are neutered. [159] Lifespan and health The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent decades. In the early 1980s, it was about seven years, 160] 33 [161] rising to 9. 4 years in 1995 [160] 33 and 15. 1 years in 2018. [162] Some cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s, 163] with the oldest known cat, Creme Puff, dying at a verified age of 38. [164] Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: one study found neutered male cats live twice as long as intact males, while spayed female cats live 62% longer than intact females. [160] 35 Having a cat neutered confers health benefits, because castrated males cannot develop testicular cancer, spayed females cannot develop uterine or ovarian cancer, and both have a reduced risk of mammary cancer. [165] Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats. [166] 45 [167] 1358 [168] 169] 170] 171] Disease About two hundred fifty heritable genetic disorders have been identified in cats, many similar to human inborn errors of metabolism. [172] The high level of similarity among the metabolism of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using genetic tests that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats as animal models in the study of the human diseases. [173] 174] Diseases affecting domestic cats include acute infections, parasitic infestations, injuries, and chronic diseases such as kidney disease, thyroid disease, and arthritis. Vaccinations are available for many infectious diseases, as are treatments to eliminate parasites such as worms and fleas. [175] Ecology Habitats The domestic cat is a cosmopolitan species and occurs across much of the world. [55] It is adaptable and now present on all continents except Antarctica, and on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the Kerguelen Islands. [176] 177] Due to its ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat, it is among the world's most invasive species. [178] As it is little altered from the wildcat, it can readily interbreed with the wildcat. This hybridization poses a danger to the genetic distinctiveness of some wildcat populations, particularly in Scotland and Hungary and possibly also the Iberian Peninsula. [52] It lives on small islands with no human inhabitants. [179] Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands. [180] Feral cats Feral cats are domestic cats that were born in or have reverted to a wild state. They are unfamiliar with and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas. [10] The numbers of feral cats is not known, but estimates of the United States feral population range from twenty-five to sixty million. [10] Feral cats may live alone, but most are found in large colonies, which occupy a specific territory and are usually associated with a source of food. [181] Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the Colosseum and Forum Romanum, with cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers. [182] Public attitudes towards feral cats vary widely, ranging from seeing them as free-ranging pets, to regarding them as vermin. [183] One common approach to reducing the feral cat population is termed "trap-neuter-return" where the cats are trapped, neutered, immunized against diseases such as rabies and the feline panleukopenia and leukemia viruses, and then released. [184] Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again. Volunteers continue to feed and give care to these cats throughout their lives. Given this support, their lifespans are increased, and behavior and nuisance problems caused by competition for food are reduced. [181] Interaction with humans Cats are common pets throughout the world, and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million as of 2007. [185] Although cat guardianship has commonly been associated with women, a 2007 Gallup poll reported that men and women in the United States were equally likely to own a cat. [186] As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international fur [187] and leather industries for making coats, hats, blankets, and stuffed toys; 188] and shoes, gloves, and musical instruments respectively [189] about 24 cats are needed to make a cat-fur coat. 190] This use has been outlawed in the United States, Australia, and the European Union in 2007. [191] Cat pelts have been used for superstitious purposes as part of the practise of witchcraft, 192] and are still made into blankets in Switzerland as folk remedies believed to help rheumatism. [193] In the Western intellectual tradition, the idea of cats as everyday objects have served to illustrate problems of quantum mechanics in the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment. A few attempts to build a cat census have been made over the years, both through associations or national and international organizations (such as the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies 's one [194] and over the Internet, 195] 196] but such a task does not seem simple to achieve. General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million. [197] 198] 199] 200] 201] Walter Chandoha made his career photographing cats after his 1949 images of Loco, an especially charming stray taken in, were published around the world. He is reported to have photographed 90, 000 cats during his career and maintained an archive of 225, 000 images that he drew from for publications during his lifetime. [202] Cat show A cat show is a judged event in which the owners of cats compete to win titles in various cat-registering organizations by entering their cats to be judged after a breed standard. [203] 204] Both pedigreed and non- purebred companion ( moggy. cats are admissible, although the rules differ from organization to organization. Competing cats are compared to the applicable breed standard, 205] and assessed for temperament and apparent health; the owners of those judged to be most ideal awarded a prize. Moggies are judged based on their temperament and healthy appearance. Some events also include activity judging, such as trained navigation of obstacle course. Often, at the end of the year, all of the points accrued at various shows are added up and more national and regional titles are awarded to champion cats. Infections transmitted from cats to humans Cats can be infected or infested with viruses, bacteria, fungus, protozoans, arthropods or worms that can transmit diseases to humans. [206] In some cases, the cat exhibits no symptoms of the disease, 207] However, the same disease can then become evident in a human. The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and immune status of the person. Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat feces and parasites exiting the cat's body. [206] 208] Some of the infections of most concern include salmonella, cat-scratch disease and toxoplasmosis. [207] History and mythology The ancient Egyptians mummified dead cats out of respect in the same way that they mummified people. [4] A 19th-century drawing of a tabby cat In ancient Egypt, cats were worshipped, and the goddess Bastet often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness. The Greek historian Herodotus reported that killing a cat was forbidden, and when a household cat died, the entire family mourned and shaved their eyebrows. Families took their dead cats to the sacred city of Bubastis, where they were embalmed and buried in sacred repositories. Herodotus expressed astonishment at the domestic cats in Egypt, because he had only ever seen wildcats. [209] Ancient Greeks and Romans kept weasels as pets, which were seen as the ideal rodent-killers. The earliest unmistakable evidence of the Greeks having domestic cats comes from two coins from Magna Graecia dating to the mid-fifth century BC showing Iokastos and Phalanthos, the legendary founders of Rhegion and Taras respectively, playing with their pet cats. The usual ancient Greek word for 'cat' was ailouros, meaning 'thing with the waving tail. Cats are rarely mentioned in ancient Greek literature. Aristotle remarked in his History of Animals that "female cats are naturally lecherous. The Greeks later syncretized their own goddess Artemis with the Egyptian goddess Bastet, adopting Bastet's associations with cats and ascribing them to Artemis. In Ovid 's Metamorphoses, when the deities flee to Egypt and take animal forms, the goddess Diana turns into a cat. [210] 211] Cats eventually displaced ferrets as the pest control of choice because they were more pleasant to have around the house and were more enthusiastic hunters of mice. During the Middle Ages, many of Artemis's associations with cats were grafted onto the Virgin Mary. Cats are often shown in icons of Annunciation and of the Holy Family and, according to Italian folklore, on the same night that Mary gave birth to Jesus, a cat in Bethlehem gave birth to a kitten. [212] Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during the Age of Discovery, as ships' cats were carried on sailing ships to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms. [46] Several ancient religions believed cats are exalted souls, companions or guides for humans, that are all-knowing but mute so they cannot influence decisions made by humans. In Japan, the maneki neko cat is a symbol of good fortune. [213] In Norse mythology, Freyja, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by cats. [214] In Jewish legend, the first cat was living in the house of the first man Adam as a pet that got rid of mice. The cat was once partnering with the first dog before the latter broke an oath they had made which resulted in enmity between the descendants of these two animals. It is also written that neither cats nor foxes are represented in the water, while every other animal has an incarnation species in the water. [215] Although no species are sacred in Islam, cats are revered by Muslims. Some Western writers have stated Muhammad had a favorite cat, Muezza. [216] He is reported to have loved cats so much, he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it. 217] The story has no origin in early Muslim writers, and seems to confuse a story of a later Sufi saint, Ahmed ar-Rifa'i, centuries after Muhammad. [218] One of the companions of Muhammad was known as Abu Hurayrah ( father of the kitten. in reference to his documented affection to cats. [219] Superstitions and rituals Some cultures are superstitious about black cats, ascribing either good or bad luck to them. Many cultures have negative superstitions about cats. An example would be the belief that a black cat "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' familiars used to augment a witch's powers and skills. The killing of cats in Medieval Ypres, Belgium, is commemorated in the innocuous present-day Kattenstoet (cat parade. 220] In medieval France, cats would be burnt alive as a form of entertainment. According to Norman Davies, the assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally carbonized. 221] It was the custom to burn a basket, barrel, or sack full of live cats, which was hung from a tall mast in the midst of the bonfire; sometimes a fox was burned. The people collected the embers and ashes of the fire and took them home, believing that they brought good luck. The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands. In 1648 Louis XIV, crowned with a wreath of roses and carrying a bunch of roses in his hand, kindled the fire, danced at it and partook of the banquet afterwards in the town hall. But this was the last occasion when a monarch presided at the midsummer bonfire in Paris. At Metz midsummer fires were lighted with great pomp on the esplanade, and a dozen cats, enclosed in wicker cages, were burned alive in them, to the amusement of the people. 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